THE DAVIDIC COVENANT:  The Covenant of the Kingdom
Kevin J. Conner and Ken Malmin

B. Childress
Apr 25 2008

The Davidic Covenant is an extension of the Abrahamic Covenant in that the major promises of the Abrahamic
Covenant are confirmed and amplified in the Davidic Covenant.  It is also a confirmation of the Mosaic Covenant.  
However, the chief promise of the Davidic Covenant is the promise of kingship.  In these prior covenants there was a
progressive revelation of kingship.

Kingship was promised in the Abrahamic Covenant:

*  To Abraham - The Covenant Father (Genesis 17:6).

*  To Sarah - The Covenant Mother (Genesis 17:16).

*  To Jacob - The Covenant Father (Genesis 35:11).

*  To Judah - The Covenant Tribe (Genesis 49:8-12).

Kingship was promised in the Mosaic Covenant:

*  To Israel - The Covenant Nation (Numbers 23:21; Deuteronomy 17:14-20).

Kingship was promised in the Davidic Covenant:

*  To David - The Covenant House (II Samuel 7; Psalms 132; I Chronicles 17; Psalms 89).

In its ultimate sense the Davidic Covenant includes in itself the New Covenant because the major promise of kinship of
the line of David finds its fulfillment in Jesus Christ, the Son of David.  He was promised that He would rule over the
house, throne and Kingdom of David forever and of "the increase of His government there would be no end"  (Luke 1:
30-33; Isaiah 9:6-9; Matthew 1:1).

The relationship of the Abrahamic, Davidic, and New Covenants is clearly seen in the promise of kingship that
culminated in the Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ.  To Him was given the"key of David" (Isaiah 22:20-25; Revelation 3:7-

An understanding of the linking promises in these covenants reveals that it was God's will that Israel have a theocratic
monarchy to establish them as a nation and kingdom.  However, as seen in the "probation cycle," Israel failed to wait
for God's will and time in the establishing of the kingdom.  While under the probation of the Mosaic and Palestinian
Covenants, and while developing as a nation, Israel's form of government was theocratic. God, as their king,
sovereignly raised up ministries to lead them, beginning with Moses and Joshua and continuing through the Judges
until Samuel, who was priest, judge, and prophet.  However, during this time there was the recognition of the need for a
godly king (Judges 17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25).  Without a king to command them, Israel wandered away from the Lord
into idolatry, immorality, violence, rebellion and anarchy (Judges 17-21).

It was in the time of the failure of both the people and the priesthood that God raised up Samuel the prophet (I Samuel
1-6).  However, though Samuel was a godly man, his sons as judges over Israel became perverse in their judgments (I
Samuel 8:1-4).  This precipitated the people's rejection of Samuel's household and their premature desire for a king to
judge them.  In desiring the kind of king that other nations had they impatiently rejected God's kind of kingship which
He desired to give them (I Samuel 8:1-4).  This precipitated the people's rejection of Samuel's household and their
premature desire for a king to judge them.  In desiring the kind of king that other nations had they impatiently rejected
God's kind of kingship which He desired to give them (I Samuel 8:5-8).  Though it was not God's perfect will, He
permitted them to have a king and chose Saul of the tribe of Benjamin (I Samuel 8:9-18; 9:10).

It was God's will for them to have a king, but it was not His time nor was Saul from the tribe having the covenant
promise of kingship (Genesis 49:10).  The Abrahamic Covenant promise of the land was fulfilled 40 years late because
of Israel's unbelief (Numbers 13,14).  The Abrahamic Covenant promise of a king was precipitated 40 years early
because of Israel's impatience.  It was after the 40 year reign of Saul and the enthronement of David over all Israel that
God made this covenant with David.

I.  The WORDS of the Covenant

Though the full words and details of the Davidic Covenant were not given until David was anointed king over all Israel,
certain words of the promises of his kingship were given at his anointing by Samuel and during the period of his
rejection under the reign of Saul (II Samuel 3:1,9,10). This is seen in the following:

*  The Lord told Samuel the prophet to anoint David the shepherd to be the future king.  The Spirit of the Lord came
upon David from that day forward (I Samuel 15:28; 16:1-13; 28:17).

*  The men of Achish spoke of David as being the king of the land (I Samuel 21:11).

*  Jonathan knew also that David would be king over Israel in due time (I Samuel 23:17).

*  King Saul also knew that David would be king over Israel (I Samuel 24:20).

*  The men of Judah came and anointed David king over the House of Judah.  This was David's second anointing (II
Samuel 2:1-4).

*  In due time all the elders of Israel anointed David as king over all Israel.  This was David's third anointing (II Samuel 5:

Thus it was to David, the man after God's own heart that the final covenant of the Old Testament era was given.  The
next covenant to be revealed was the New Covenant.

The primary chapters of Scripture that contain the elements of the Davidic Covenant are II Samuel 7; I Chronicles 17;
Psalms 89; Psalms 132 and Jeremiah 33.

    A.  The Promises of the Covenant

    1.  Promises of Blessing

    a.  Appointed Land (II Samuel 7:10; I Chronicles 17:9).

    Even though in David's time Israel was dwelling in the Abrahamic Covenant land God promised that
    they would be planted in an ordained place.  They would move no more nor be wasted as they had
    been both in Egypt and in Canaan.  This would happen after the "rooting up" referred to in I kings
    14:15.  This was particularly fulfilled in relation to the House of Israel in their Assyrian Captivity and
    wandering among all nations to their newly appointed place and "promised land" (Amos 9:8,9).

    Note:  Refer to the "land" promises in the Abrahamic and Palestinian Covenants.

    b. Victory over Enemies (II Samuel 7:11; I Chronicles 17:10).

    This promise is an extension of the promise God made to Abraham that his seed would "possess
    the gate of his enemies" (Genesis 22:17; 24:60).  This began with the conquests of Joshua,
    continued with the tribe of Judah and was consummated naturally with David's victories over all his
    enemies (Joshua 11,12; Judges I; II Samuel 8; I Chronicles 22:8).  David not only regained territory
    that had been lost but he also conquered all the land promised to Abraham (II Chronicles 9:26).  His
    victories pointed to the spiritual victory of Christ, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, and of the Church
    (Revelation 5:5; Matthew 16:18).

    c.  Ruling Dynasty (II Samuel 7:11-16; I Chronicles 17:11-15).

    This promise is also an extension of the Abrahamic Covenant promises of kingship (Genesis 17:
    6,16; 35:11; 49:10).  God promised David that He would build his household by establishing his
    seed upon his throne to rule over his kingdom forever.

    (1)  Davidic Seed - his descendants.

    (2)  Davidic House - his dynasty.

    (3)  Davidic Throne - his authority.

    (4)  Davidic Kingdom - his dominion.

    Under the Abrahamic Covenant God chose a nation (Israel) and from the nation He chose a
    tribe (Judah).  Under the Davidic Covenant He chose a family (David of Jesse) from the tribe
    (Genesis 17:6,16; 49:8-12; Psalms 78:67-72; 89:3,4).  This promise finds its fulfillment in the
    unbroken dynasty of Davidic kings from Solomon to Zedekiah in the promised land.

    Note:  None of the Kings of the House of Israel were of the Davidic Seed.

    The Dynasty of David:

    (1)  Solomon - I Kings 1-11.

    (2)  Rehoboam - I Kings 12-14.

    (3)  Abijam - I kings 15:1-8; II Chronicles 13:1-22.

    (4)  Asa - I Kings 15; II Chronicles 14,15,16.

    (5)  Jehosphat - I Kings 15:24; II Chronicles 17,18,19,20.

    (6)  Jehoram - I Kings 22:50; II Kings 8:16-24; II Chronicles 21.

    (7)  Ahaziah - II Kings 8:24-29; 9:27; II Chronicles 22:1-9.

    (8)  Joash - II KIngs 11:4-21; II Chronicles 22,23,24.

    (9)  Amaziah - II KIngs 12:21; 14:1-20; II Chronicles 24,25.

    (10) Uzziah - II Kings 14,15; II Chronicles 26.

    (11) Jotham - II Kings 15:32-38; II Chronicles 27.

    (12) Ahaz - II Kings 15:38; 16:1-2; II Chronicles 28.

    (13) Hezekiah - II Kings 18,19,20; II Chronicles 28,30,31,32.

    (14) Manasseh - II Kings 21:1-18; II Chronicles 33.

    (15) Amon - II Kings 21; II Chronicles 33:20-25.

    (16) Josiah - II Kings 22,23; II Chronicles 34,35.

    (17) Jehoahaz - II Kings 23:31-34; II Chronicles 36:1-4.

    (18) Jehoiakim - II Kings 23:34-37; 24:1-6; II Chronicles 36:4-8.

    (19) Jehoiachin - II Kings 24:6-17; II Chronicles 36:8-10.

    (20) Zedekiah - II Kings 24:17-20; 25; II Chronicles 36:10-21.

    d.  Sure Mercies (II Samuel 7:15; I Chronicles 17:13)

    God promised David that if his seed committed iniquity He would chasten them but not take His
    mercy away from them as He did in cutting off the household of Saul by death.  For this reason
    David continually spoke of the covenant mercy of the Lord (Psalms 51:1; 56:1; 57:1-3).  The
    Davidic Covenant psalm also speaks of the mercy of the Lord (Psalms 89:1,2,14,28-34).

    The New Testament shows the ultimate fulfillments of the sure mercies of David to be the
    resurrections of Jesus from the dead as well as the resurrections of all believers (Acts 13:34; II
    Timothy 2:8; Revelation 20:6).

    e.  Messianic Seed (II Samuel 7:11-16; I Chronicles 17:11-15)

    As an extension of the Abrahamic Covenant this is the final covenant "seed promise" of the Old
    Testament era.  The seed of David finds its fulfillment ultimately in the Lord Jesus Christ.  He was
    David's Lord and Root as to His Divinity but was David's son and offspring as to His humanity.  The
    writer to the Hebrews applied the "father-son" clause of the Davidic Covenant to Jesus Christ (II
    Samuel 7:14 with Hebrews 1:5).

    (1)  A virgin of the House of David would bring forth Immanuel (Isaiah 7:13,14).

    (2)  A Righteous Branch would be raised up to David (Jeremiah 25:5,6; 33:15).

    (3)  Jesus Christ is the son of Abraham and the son of David (Matthew 1:1; Acts 13:22,23).

    (4)  He is the seed of David after the flesh (Romans 1:3,4).

    (5)  He is the root and offspring of David (Revelation 22:16).

    (6)  He is the lion of the tribe of Judah (Revelation 5:5).

    (7)  He is to receive the throne of His father David and reign over the house of Jacob forever
    so that His kingdom shall have no end (Luke 1:31-33; Isaiah 9:6-9).  He will have an eternal
    ruling dynasty.

    f.  The Temple (II Samuel 7:13; I Chronicles 17:11-15).

    It was David's desire to build a house for God that prompted the giving of the Davidic Covenant (II
    Samuel 7:1-10); I Chronicles 17:1-10).  Though David wanted to build God's house, God promised
    that He would build David a house by raising up his seed as an enduring dynasty.  He would,
    however, allow David's son to build a house for His name.  This house became known as the
    Temple of Solomon (I Chronicles 28,29; II Chronicles 2:1) and prefigured to Christ and His Church
    (John 2:18-21; I Corinthians 3:16; Ephesians 2:19-22; I Timothy 3:15).

Promises of Cursing

    Like the Abrahamic Covenant, the Davidic Covenant was primarily a covenant of blessing having no curse
    attached to it.  However, some kings of the Davidic line did bring judgment upon themselves by their willful
    transgressions and violations of the terms of the covenant (II Chronicles 36; Jeremiah 22:18-30).

The Terms

    1.  Faith

    David was a man of faith having a responsive heart to the word of God (Romans 4:6-8; Psalms 27:13;
    Hebrews 11:32-34).  The covenant God made with him required a faith response to see it fulfilled.  After
    David received the covenant words, he worshipped the Lord, expressing his covenant faith (II Samuel 7:18-
    29; I Chronicles 17:16-27).  God expected David's descendants to continue in the faith of David.

    2. Obedience

    God's testimony concerning David was that he was "a man after Mine own heart, which shall fulfill all My
    will" (Acts 13:22).  The covenant God made with David required obedience to His word (II Samuel 7:14;
    Psalms 89:30-33; 132:11,12).  Upon disobedience, God could transfer the throne to another of the seed
    of David as He said in a warning to Solomon (II Chronicles 7:12-22).

    C.  The Oath of the Covenant

    Being a part of the Abrahamic Covenant, the Davidic Covenant was confirmed with an oath which made its
    promises irrevocable (Psalms 89:3-5, 27-35; 132:11; II Samuel 3:9,10).  Though God promised to chasten
    David's seed for their transgressions, He also vowed to remember His mercy.  There could be chastisement of
    the covenant kings but not abrogation of the covenant promises (II Samuel 7:14,15; Psalms 89:30-34).

    The ultimate fulfillment of this oath was fulfilled in the sinless Christ of God, the Son of David, who received the
    oath of eternal kingship (Acts 2:29-35).

    D.  The Book of the Covenant

    Although there is no specific mention of the writing of a book in connection with this covenant, it was recorded
    under inspiration of the Holy Spirit in due time in the Books of II Samuel, I Chronicles and Psalms.

II.  The BLOOD of the Covenant

In relation to the Sacrifice, Priesthood and Sanctuary, the inter-relatedness of the Davidic Covenant with other
Covenants must be recognized.  As a covenant man, David was particularly under the Abrahamic Covenant, the
Mosaic Covenant, the Palestinian Covenant and the Davidic Covenant.  His relationship to the Mosaic and the Davidic
must be particularly distinguished.

*  In relation to the
Sacrifices, according to the Mosaic Covenant, David could not offer the compulsory offerings.  
However, under the Davidic Covenant he did offer the sacrifices of thanksgiving and praise, as well as voluntary

*  In relation to the
Priesthood, David could not participate in the Levitical priesthood of the Mosaic Covenant but he
could act as a king-priest in relation to the Davidic Covenant.

*  In relation to the
Sanctuary, David did not despise the Tabernacle of Moses of the Mosaic Covenant at Gibeon, but
he did establish the Tabernacle of David of the Davidic Covenant at Zion.

    A.  The Sacrifice of the Covenant

    As with all redemptive covenants before the cross, animal body and blood constituted the sacrifice of the Davidic
    Covenant.  However, this covenant also involved spiritual sacrifices like that of the coming New Covenant.

    1.  The Body

    When David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem he offered the voluntary burnt offerings and
    peace offerings before the Lord (II Samuel 6:17,18; I Chronicles 16:1-3).  The bodies of these sacrificial
    victims were presented to God as free-will offerings in this dedicatory service (Leviticus 1,3).

    2.  The Blood

    The burnt and peace offerings involved the shedding of sacrificial blood.  The authority of the king was to
    be based on blood atonement (II Samuel 6:17,18; I Chronicles 16:1-3).

    3.  Spiritual Sacrifices

    Though David offered animal sacrifices according to the requirements of the Mosaic Covenant, he also
    offered the spiritual sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving under the Davidic Covenant.  These later
    became part of the New Covenant order of worship (Psalms 27:6; 141:1; 116:17-19; Hebrews 13:15,16; I
    Peter 2:5).

    B.  The Mediator of the Covenant

    The priesthood of this covenant involved David acting as King-Priest as well as the involvement of the Levitical
    priesthood in the Tabernacle of David.

    1.  David - The King-Priest

    Although David was not a priest after the Levitical order, he did act in the order of Melchisedek.  The
    evidence of David touching this priesthood is shown in the following.

    a.  David wore a linen ephod, a priestly garment, symbolic of righteousness (II Samuel 6:14; I
    Chronicles 15:27).

    b.  David offered priestly sacrifices before the Lord (II Samuel 6:17).

    c.  David officiated in pronouncing the Aaronic priestly blessing upon the people in the name of the
    Lord (I Chronicles 16:1,2; Numbers 6:24-27).

    d.  David set up another Tabernacle and placed the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord in it, even as
    Moses had set up his Tabernacle centuries before (I Chronicles 16:1; II Samuel 6:17).

    e.  David's horn was to be like Aaron's priestly rod, and the Lord would cause it to bud; thus
    combining the King (horn) and Priest (rod) in the one person of David (Psalms 132:17; Numbers 17;
    Luke 1:69).

    When king Saul and king Uzziah presumed into priestly ministrations, God judged them for seeking
    to combine the king-priestly ministry (I Samuel 15; II Chronicles 26).  However, he did not judge
    David for this.  David  was an anointed king over the House of Judah and House of Israel.  But he
    also touched something pertaining to priesthood, thus shadowing forth Jesus Christ, the Son of
    David, as King-Priest, after the Order of Melchisedek (I Samuel 16:1; II Samuel 2:4; 5:1-5).  In these
    things David, though under the Aaronic Priesthood and Mosaic Covenant, shadowed forth the
    Melchisedek Priesthood under the New Covenant (Psalms 110; 113; Hebrews 7.

    2.  The Levitical Priesthood

    Though David left the majority of the Levitical priesthood to minister in the Tabernacle of Moses,
    according to the Mosaic Covenant, he appointed a great number of priests to minister in the Tabernacle
    of David according to the Davidic Covenant.

    This company of priests were under the leadership of Chenaniah, the Master of Son, as well as Herman,
    Asaph, and Ethan (I Chronicles 15:16-28; 16:1-6; 25:1-7).  There were two companies of priests,
    performing two orders of worship, in two different sanctuaries, on two different mountains, accordiing to
    two different covenants.  The New Testament reveals that the Levitical priesthood was done away with and
    that the priesthood Order of Melchisedek was established.  That which took place under the Davidic
    Covenant pointed to the ultimate fulfillment of the New Covenant (I Peter 2:5; Acts 6:7; Revelation 1:6; 5:9-

    C.  The Sanctuary of the Covenant

    Though David maintained the order of service in the Tabernacle of Moses, he was led by God to establish a
    Tabernacle on Mt. Zion.  There he brought the Ark of the Covenant which Eli's sons of the Aaronic order had
    removed from the Tabernacle at Shiloh and had lost in battle to the Philistines.  He placed it in the tent he had
    pitched for it in Zion (I Chronicles 13; 15; 16; II Samuel 6:12-17; Acts 7:46; Isaiah 16:5; Amos 9:11; Acts 15:16).

    The order of service of the Tabernacle of Moses was characterized by continual animal sacrifices and holy place
    ministrations without the Ark of God.  The order of the Tabernacle of David was characterized by continual
    sacrifices of singing of praise with instruments of worship before the Ark of the Lord.  It was this place of worship
    in Zion which God chose for His eternal habitation (Psalms 132).

    From this point on in Scripture, Zion carried a twofold significance commensurate with the ministry of David.

    1.  Zion - the City of David - The Political Centre

    Zion became the capital city, the governing city of the nation and the city of the throne of king David.  Here
    many of the kingly Zion Psalms were born (Psalms 48; 72; 110).

    Earthly Zion foreshadowed heavenly Zion from which king Jesus rules and reigns over His people, the
    Church (Hebrews 12:22-24; Revelation 14:1-4; Psalms 2:6,7; Acts 4:23-26; Psalms 146:10).

    2.  Zion - The Tabernacle of David - The Religious Centre

    Zion was also a sacred city, the religious capital of the nation.  Here the Tabernacle of David order of
    worship was centered.  Here the people of Israel gathered to worship and praise the Lord.  Many Zion
    Psalms of worship were born here and testified of this fact (Psalms 9:11; 48:2; 11; 50:2).  Zion with its
    throne and tabernacle involved both King and Priest together and pointed to the New Covenant order of
    Melchisedek.  Here spiritual sacrifices of praise, worship, and thanksgiving were offered (Psalms 65:1; 87:
    1-6; 99:1-2; 102:13-21; 134:3).

    The fulfillment of the Tabernacle of David is found in Christ and the Church.  Both Old Testament and New
    Testament show that Christ would sit in the Tabernacle of David, His Church, and that both Jew and
    Gentile would gather together to worship Him who is the greater Son of David (Isaiah 16:5; Amos 9:11,12;
    Acts 15:15-18).  The writer to the Hebrews reveals that, after the cross, the believer is no longer under the
    Tabernacle of Moses of Sinai or the Mosaic Covenant with its Aaronic priesthood and animal sacrifices,
    but is under the Tabernacle of David of Zion and the New Covenant with its Melchisedek priesthood and
    spiritual sacrifices being offered to God through Christ (Hebrews 5-12).

    That which David and the Levites experienced in the sacrifices, priesthood and tabernacle under the
    Davidic Covenant was consummated in Christ and the Church in the sacrifices, priesthood and tabernacle
    of the New Covenant.

III.  The SEAL of the Covenant

Each of the Covenants had their particular sign and seal.  Three Covenants refer in some way to the heavenly celestial

In the Noahic Covenant, God used the rainbow as the token and seal.  In the Abrahamic Covenant God used the
multiplicity of the stars as a witness of the promise of multiplicity of Abraham's seed.  But in the Davidic Covenant God
used the heavenly bodies of the sun, moon, and stars to be its sign and seal (Psalms 89:34-37; Jeremiah 32:35).

The sun, moon, and stars were to be for signs, seasons, days, and years (Genesis 1:14-19).  God promised David that
as long as the ordinances of heaven remained, the sun to govern the day and the moon and stars to govern the night,
that David would have a seed upon his throne (Jeremiah 32:35-37; 33:19-26).  Therefore, because these heavenly
signs are still functioning, the throne of David continues to exist.

The ultimate fulfillment of the seal of the Davidic Covenant is found in Jesus Christ, who is the King of kings and Lord
of lords, ruling and reigning over the redeemed, the spiritual Israel of God.  This reign is in the eternal city of God that
has no need of the light of the sun or the moon, for the Lord God and the Lamb are the light and glory thereof
(Revelation 19:16; 21:1-27; 22:1-5).


Christ Himself is the ultimate fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant.  In Him David finds both his Lord (as to His Divinity)
and his Son (as to His Humanity).  He will return the second time without sin unto salvation and reign over all His
redeemed Israel, both of the Old Testament and the New Testament, as King of kings and Lord of lords.  The Kingdom
shall be His and of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end.  He shall order it and establish
because of the zeal of the Lord of Hosts has spoken it and will perform it (Isaiah 9:6-9).


The Covenants, by Kevin J. Conner and Ken Malmin, Copyright 1983, Bible Temple Publishing.