THE NEW COVENANT - The Lord Jesus Christ
"The Covenant of Consummation"

Kevin J. Conner and Ken Malmin

B. Childress        
Mar 2 2008

The cycle of Covenant, Probation, Failure and Judgment certainly completes itself in relation to the chosen nation, and
more especially the House of Judah, although representatively the House of Israel is included, at the first coming of the
Lord Jesus Christ.

The chosen nation of Israel was a nation "to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the
covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers and
of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever" (Romans 9:4,5)

The Edenic Covenant had been made with Adam before the entrance of sin.  The Adamic Covenant was made after sin
involving redemption for Adam's race.  The Noahic Covenant had been made with the whole of mankind and all
creatures.  But all succeeding covenants had been made virtually with the chosen nation, Israel.  It began with the
Abrahamic Covenant, then progressed through the Mosaic, the Palestinian, and the Davidic Covenants.  Covenantal
revelation would consummate in the making of the New Covenant by their promised Messiah.

However, the tragic history of the nation shows repeated failure and judgment in spite of God's covenantal grace to the
people of His choice.  The Lord Jesus Christ came born of a virgin, as the seed of the woman, the seed of Abraham,
Isaac, Jacob and the seed of the house of David.  He came to bring redemption from sin to them, as well as all other
nations.  He came to reveal God the Father to them.  He came as the fulfillment and the fulfiller of all covenantal
promises given to their fathers (Romans 15:8).  By the time Christ came, the leaders of the Jewish nation had perverted
and twisted the Mosaic Covenant by their traditions (Mark 7:1-15).  They had become spiritually proud of their choice
under the Abrahamic Covenant.  They were characterized by hypocrisy, arrogance, and lack of any spiritual perception.

Thus after 3-1/2 years of miraculous ministry in word and deed, confirming the covenants of redemption, Jewry, as a
whole, rejected the Christ of God.  The Jewish Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to be crucified, and under Roman authority
put Him to death.  The nation filled up their cup of iniquity (Matthew 23:32).  The crucifixion was the final act of
transgression.  Even after the Lord Jesus had made the New Covenant with the twelve apostles, had died, been
resurrected and had poured out the Holy Spirit, grace was extended to Israel for another 40 years.  But in 70 A.D. the
period of probation for the nation came to an end.  God allowed Prince Titus and the Roman armies to conquer the city
of Jerusalem, destroy the Temple, and scatter Jewry from the land of Palestine.  They became a people under
covenant judgment and the curse of innocent blood.

There is no hope for Israel outside of Christ and New Covenant relationship with God through Him.  The New Covenant
is the last covenant ever to be made with the House of Israel and the House of Judah (Jeremiah 31:31-34).  To have
been the recipients of previous covenants and to reject the New Covenant of God in Christ is to be placed outside of
covenant promises and blessings for all eternity.

When it comes to the revelation of the New Covenant we discover that both God's foreknowledge and foreordained
purpose are illustrated by the types and prophecies found under the Old Testament.

    1.  The New Covenant Typified

    Among the many types of the New Covenant found under the Old Testament, the following stand out as major

    a.  In Abraham's Two Sons

    In Galatians 4:21-31 Paul used the two sons of Abraham as an allegory to explain their representation of
    two covenants.  Ishmael (Genesis 16) represented the Mosaic Covenant of law and works.  Isaac (Genesis
    21,22), represented the New Covenant of grace and faith.  When Isaac was weaned it became apparent
    that Ishmael could not be the heir of the Abrahamic Covenant (Genesis 21).  This foreshadowed that the
    Mosaic Covenant would be fulfilled and abolished when the New Covenant was ratified (Hebrews 10:

    b.  In Moses' Law

    In II Corinthians 3, Paul illustrated how the Mosaic Covenant was typical of the New Covenant.  The words
    of the Old Covenant were written in two tables of stone, although glorious, they were to be done away
    with.  This pointed to the words of the New Covenant which are written on the two tables of the heart and
    mind.  These are more glorious and are to last forever (Exodus 20; 31:18; Hebrews 8:6-13; 10:16,17).

    c.  In Marriage Laws

    In Romans 7:1-4 Paul illustrated how the Old Covenant marriage laws typified the transfer from the Mosaic
    Covenant to the New Covenant.  Israel was married at Mt. Sinai on the basis of the Mosaic Covenant.  This
    marriage ended in divorce by reason of adultery (Jeremiah 3:1-14; 31:31-34; Isaiah 50:1).  Because of the
    death and resurrection involved in the New Covenant Israel may now be joined to Christ in a new marriage.

    d.  In Circumcision

    In Romans 4 Paul referred to Abraham's being justified by faith, while uncircumcised, as an example of the
    Gentiles, the Uncircumcision, being justified by faith under the New Covenant.  He also referred to the
    Jews, who were the Circumcision, under the Mosaic Covenant, as being justified by faith also under the
    New Covenant.  Therefore, by reason of the New Covenant, Abraham is the father of all who believe,
    whether Jew or Gentile, Circumcision or Uncircumcision.

    Now the true Jew is one who has experienced the spiritual circumcision of the heart, whether he be Jew or
    Gentile (Romans 2:24-29; Philippians 3:3).

    2.  The New Covenant Prophesied

    Not only was the New Covenant typified in the Old Testament era, it was also clearly prophesied.  Though the
    prophets of Israel and Judah were under the Mosaic Covenant they were able to prophesy of the New Covenants.

    a.  By Isaiah

    Isaiah foretold the coming of the Redeemer to Zion and the turning from transgression by reason of the
    words and spirit of the coming New Covenant (Isaiah 59:20,21;  61:8).  That this was prophetic of the New
    Covenant is confirmed by the apostle Paul  Romans 11:26,27.

    b.  By Jeremiah

    The prophet Jeremiah gave the clearest and fullest prophecy concerning the New Covenant that the Lord
    said He would make with the House of Judah and the House of Israel in the last days  (Jeremiah 31:31-34;
    Hebrews 8; Jeremiah 32:38-40).  It is this utterance that was dealt with by the writer to the Hebrews.  He
    clearly stated how the Mosaic Covenant had become old, decayed, and was ready to vanish away once
    the New Covenant was established (Hebrews 8:6-13; 10:16,17,29; 12:24; 13:20).  Its promises involved a
    new heart and a new mind upon which the laws of God would be written instead of upon tables of stone.

    c.  By Ezekiel

    Ezekiel also foretold the coming of the New Covenant (Ezekiel 16:60-62).  Even though these prophets of
    Israel were under the Mosaic Covenant they prophesied of the New Covenant, which would be a better
    covenant.  Ezekiel spoke of the fact that this covenant would be a covenant of peace (Ezekiel 34:25).  It
    would involve cleansing by water, the reception of a new heart, and a new spirit by the power of the Holy
    Spirit's work and the removal of the stony heart.  These things are New Covenant promises (Ezekiel 11:16-
    21; 20:37; 37:25-27).

    d.  By Hosea

    The prophet Hosea foretold the coming of the New Covenant both by his utterances and the symbolic
    marriage he experienced.  Hosea found that his wife, the mother of his children, had played the harlot.  
    Under God's instruction he put her away.  The children born of Gomer had symbolic names: "Lo ru-hamah"
    meaning "Not having obtained mercy" and "Lo-ammi", "Not My people, and I will not be your God" (Hosea 1:
    6-9; 2:1,2).

    All of this was symbolic of Jehovah's marriage to Israel.  Because of Israel's national adultery, He gave her
    a bill of divorce (Jeremiah 3:1-14; Isaiah 50:1).  He cast her off and thus they did not obtain mercy, they
    were not His people, and He was not their God under the Old Covenant economy.

    However, God also spoke through Hosea saying that the people, though cast off, would be as the sand of
    the sea (an Abrahamic Covenant promise), and in due time would become the sons of the living God (a
    New Covenant promise).  Hosea 1:10,11.

    To illustrate this, God told Hosea to redeem Gomer back to himself.  This he did and it became symbolic of
    the fact that though national Israel was divorced under the Old Covenant, by redemption under the New
    Covenant, at the cross, they could be restored back to God in covenantal relationship.

    The New Testament writers, especially Paul and Peter, took these utterances of Hosea and used them to
    show that under the Old Covenant both Israel and the Gentiles found no mercy, and were not the people
    of God.  But now, under the New Covenant, in Christ, they find mercy and become His people and He
    becomes their God (Romans 9:24-33; 11:26-32; I Peter 2:9,10).

    3.  The New Covenant Personified

    Because all previous covenants pointed to and were to be fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the prophets also stated that
    the Lord Jesus Christ is the New Covenant personified.  

    He is the SEED of the Adamic, Noahic, Abrahamic, Mosaic, and Davidic Covenants.  The Father God, by the
    Spirit, spoke through the prophet Isaiah concerning the Messiah, His Son, saying: "I will give THEE for a covenant
    of the people" (Isaiah 42:6,7; 49:5-8 with II Corinthians 6:2).

    The prophet Malachi speaks of the Lord Jesus as being the Messenger of the covenant" (Malachi 3:1).

    Seeing that the Lord Jesus Christ Himself is the New Covenant personified, two major facts should be considered
    relative to all other covenants.

    a. Temporal Elements Fulfilled and Abolished

    As previously noted, previous covenants had both temporal and everlasting elements.  Jesus Christ, by the
    New Covenant, came to be the fulfillment of the Messianic promises in those covenants and by the cross
    abolish the temporal elements in those covenants.  This may be illustrated by these examples.

    *  Christ is the Seed of the Adamic, Abrahamic, as well as the Noahic Covenant.  As such He is the
    fulfillment of the "seed promises."

    *  The seal of the Abrahamic Covenant was circumcision, but, the sacramental value of this physical seal  
    was abolished by the cross.  It was replaced by circumcision of the heart and spirit; an internal rather than
    external seal.  This temporal element of the Abrahamic Covenant was fulfilled and abolished (Matthew 1:1;
    Romans 2:25-29; Colossians 2:11,12).

    *  The Mosaic Covenant had numerous temporal elements; its laws on tables of stone, ceremonial
    sacrifices, priesthood, festival and sanctuary services.  All of this was fulfilled and abolished at the cross by
    Christ.  It was done away by fulfillment (II Corinthians 3; Hebrews 8-10).

    b.  Everlasting Elements Remain

    Previous covenants had everlasting elements in them also.  While the New Covenant fulfilled and
    abolished the  temporal elements, it made possible the everlasting elements in these same covenants.

    Things can only be eternal or everlasting by reason of Him who lives in the power of an endless life, and
    gives everlasting life to all who believe on Him (Hebrews 7:16; John 3:16).

    Thus the "everlasting inheritance" of the Abrahamic Covenant, the "everlasting priesthood" of the Mosaic
    Covenant and the "everlasting throne and kingdom" of the Davidic Covenant can only be possible in and
    through Christ. It is the everlasting New Covenant, which is primarily spiritual and eternal in its elements
    that makes possible all the everlasting elements in former covenants.

I.  The WORDS of the Covenant

When considering the words of the New Covenant it is necessary to begin with all the words of Jesus spoken in the
Gospels.  Then we may add to these the truths built on them in the Acts, the Epistles and Revelation.  The words and
blessings of the New Covenant, though voluminous, may be condensed in the following outline.

    A.  The Promises of the Covenant

    Though not always stated in form of a promise, the words of Jesus are indeed New Covenant promised
    blessings.  Jesus Christ was made a minister of the circumcision "to confirm the promises made unto the fathers"
    (Romans 15:8).

    New Covenant blessings are also the fulfillment of the previous covenants and their promised blessings.  In
    Abraham's seed all nations were to be blessed.  This finds its fulfillment in New Covenant blessing (Genesis 12:3;
    Galatians 3:8).  The preaching, teaching, saving and healing ministry of Jesus Christ was all a confirmation of the
    covenants made with Adam, Abraham, Noah, Israel, and David.  All were intended to restore man back to the
    blessing and purpose God intended in the Edenic Covenant.  However, the blessings of the New Covenant go far
    beyond those of Old Testament covenants.

    1.  Promises of Blessing

    a.  Blessing of Salvation

    The word "salvation" includes in its meaning "safety, security, preservation, deliverance, and

    The chief blessing of the New Covenant is the salvation of the soul.  It is the greatest "spiritual
    blessing" (Ephesians 1:1-3) that Christ came to bring.  Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world (John
    4:42; Acts 13:23).  Theologically this "so great salvation" includes the following benefits, all made
    possible by the New Covenant in Christ (Hebrews 2:3).

    (1)  Pardon - the forgiveness and remission of the penalty of sin (Acts 10:43; 13:36-39).  
    Jesus forgave sins (Luke 7:36-50; Matthew 9:2; Mark 2:5) and brought salvation to sinners
    (Luke 19:1-10).  The Old Covenant simply covered forgiven sin while the New Covenant
    provides cleansing of forgiven sin (I John 1:5-9).

    (2)  Justification - the pronouncing just, a declaration of righteousness and right standing
    before God through Christ (Romans 5:1; 3:24-26).  By the works of the Law, the Mosaic
    Covenant, none could be justified (Roman 3:19,20; Acts 15:8-11).  The New Covenant makes
    possible justification by faith in an accomplished work.

    (3)  Regeneration - by which one is born again into the family of God and can call God
    "Father" (John 3:1-5; Matthew 6:9; I Peter 1:23).  Under the Old Covenant none could be born
    again, but the New Covenant makes possible the miracle of the new birth.

    (4)  Assurance - whereby one has the witness of the Spirit that he is secure in obedience to
    the Word of God (Hebrews 5:8,9; 6:10-12; 10:38,39; I John 3:19).  The Old Covenant
    believers never had the blessed assurance that New Covenant believers are given.

    (5)  Sanctification - whereby one is set apart unto the Lord and His holy service and use
    (John 17:17; I Thessalonians 5:23,24; Ephesians 5:26,27).  The Old Covenant believers
    generally did not experience the blessing of sanctification made available for every believer
    under the New Covenant.

    (6)  Adoption - whereby one is placed as a son in the family of god (Romans 8:15,23;
    Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:13,14).  By this act we are set in as mature members of the family
    of God and Jesus is the Firstborn among a vast family of brethren (Matthew 11:46-50;
    Romans 8:29).  The Old Covenant believers never experienced this sonship as do New
    Covenant believers.

    (7)  Glorification - to render or esteem glorious, honorable, or to magnify.  Glorification is the
    final work of redemption in the perfected saints.  Man fell from the glory of God when he
    sinned under the Edenic Covenant (Romans 3:23).  The New Covenant makes provision for
    the believer from justification to glorification (Romans 8:17,30).  Old Covenant saints saw and
    experienced in small measure the glory of God.  His majesty and brightness.  The New
    Covenant brings the believer into the fullness of the glory of God (John 17:22-24; II
    Corinthians 3:18).

    Though saints under previous covenants may have experienced some of these blessings in
    measure there is a uniqueness to these blessings because of New Covenant believer's experience
    of being "in Christ" by the miracle of the new birth.  Those under the Adamic, Noahic, Abrahamic,
    and Davidic Covenants certainly knew pardon and justification by faith, all in anticipation of that
    which would come under the New Covenant (Hebrews 11; Romans 4).  There were those even under
    the Mosaic Covenant who experienced pardon, justification, and sanctification by faith in the coming
    New Testament.  However, the New Covenant sacrifice in Christ would make available redemption
    and salvation for all believers whether they were under the Old Testament or the New Testament
    (Hebrews 9:6-15).  Such salvation and righteousness had been prophesied by the Old Testament
    prophets (Isaiah 51:1; 4-8; 53:11,12; Jeremiah 23:5,6; 33:15,16).

    b.  Blessing of the Gospel of the Kingdom

    Christ not only came to bring salvation, but also to bring the good news of the kingdom of God, This
    involved the preaching and teaching ministry of Christ.  The preaching and teaching of Jesus was an
    integral part of the words of the New Covenant, the Gospel of the Kingdom (Matthew 4:23-25; 9:35;
    10:1-42; 24:14).

    The Church is to be the instrument to continue the work that Jesus began to do and teach (Acts 1:1;
    Matthew 16:15-20).  The Gospel of the Kingdom has to be preached to all the world for a witness to
    all nations before the end comes (Matthew 24:14; Matthew 28:18-20).

    The Church in the Book of Acts preached and demonstrated that kingdom (Acts 1:3,6; 8:1,12; 19:8;
    20:17-27; 28:23,31).  By the preaching and reception of the Gospel people are born into the
    kingdom of God (John 3:1-5) and added to His Church (Acts 2:41-47; 5:14; 11:24).  They are
    translated from the kingdom of darkness, given citizenship in the heavenly kingdom and seated with
    Christ on the throne of the kingdom (Colossians 1:13,14; Ephesians 2:5-19).

    The teaching and preaching of Jesus covers the basic laws and principles of kingdom living for New
    Covenant believers.  Though these words are found in the Gospels as a whole, the major truths are
    especially in Matthew's didactic Gospel and these may be grouped in the following manner.

    (1)  The New Birth into the Kingdom - John 3:1-21.

    (2)  The Beatitudes - Matthew 5:1-12.

    (3)  The Laws of the Kingdom - Matthew 5:13-48; Luke 6:20-49.

    (4)  The Principles of Kingdom Living - Matthew 6-7.

    (5)  The Parables of the Kingdom - Matthew 13,20,21,22,25; Mark 4,8; Luke 15,19,20.

    (6)  Heart Condition - Matthew 11:1-30; 12:31-50; Matthew 15:10-20; Mark 7:14-23.

    (7)  Principles of the Ministry - Matthew 10; Luke 10.

    (8)  Traditions versus the Word of God - Matthew 15:1-9; Mark 7:1-13.

    (9)  The Bread of Heaven - John 6; Matthew 16:1-12.

    (10)  The Church and the Keys of the Kingdom - Matthew 16:15-28; 24:14.

    (11)  Concerning Offences and Forgiveness - Matthew 18; Mark; Luke 17:1-6.

    (12)  Concerning Divorce, Marriage, and Children - Matthew 19:1-5; Mark 10:1-16.

    (13)  Concerning Riches and Stewardship - Matthew 19:16-30; Luke 12; 16:1-12.

    (14)  Having a Servant spirit - Matthew 20:17-28; Mark 10:32-45.

    (15)  The Cost of Discipleship - Luke 14.

    (16)  Concerning Taxes - Matthew 17:24-27; 22:15-22.

    (17)  Concerning Hell - Luke 16:19-31.

    (18)  Concerning Resurrection - Matthew 22:23-33; John 5.

    (19)  The Two Great Commandments of Love - Matthew 22:34-40.

    (20)  Concerning Hypocrisy - Matthew 23; Mark 11:37-54.

    (21)  Concerning Worship - John 4.

    (22)  Concerning True Judgment - John 8:1-11.

    (23)  Concerning Father God - John 8:12-59.

    (24)  Concerning True Shepherds - John 10.

    (25)  Concerning Washing one another's feet - John 13.

    (26)  Concerning the Ministry of the Holy Spirit - John 14,15,16.

    (27)  Concerning Prayer for Unity among believers - John 17.

    (28)  Concerning Apocalyptic Events - Matthew 24; Mark 13; Luke 17:20-37; Luke 21.

    (29)  Concerning the Lord's Covenant Table - Matthew 26:17-30.

    (30)  Concerning the Great Commission to Evangelize - Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:15-20; Luke 24:

    Things that are written in the Acts, the Epistles and Revelation are the words of Jesus given by the
    Holy Spirit through the apostles.  All are amplification and application of the "seed-words" of Jesus.  
    These are the New Covenant words.  The Church is to preach, teach, and live the laws and
    principles of the Gospel of the Kingdom.

    c.  Blessing on the Gentiles

    The origin of the nations was seen in the Noahic Covenant.  The blessing of all these nations was
    promised in the Abrahamic Covenant.  But under the Mosaic Covenant the Gentile nations were
    excluded from blessing until the Messiah would come.  In the beginning of His ministry Christ forbade
    His disciples to go to the Gentiles but rather to focus upon the lost sheep of the House of Israel
    (Matthew 10:1-8).  This was to give the Jews the first opportunity to receive the Messiah.  However,
    as the unbelief and harness of the Jews' heart was exposed, Christ began to minister to Gentiles,
    illustrating His intention to open the door of faith to the Gentiles in due time (John 1:11,12; Matthew
    8:5-13; John 4:1-42; Matthew 15:21-28; Acts 14:27).

    After His death and resurrection, but before His ascension, Christ commissioned His disciples to take
    the Gospel to all nations (Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15-20; Acts 1:8; Galatians 3:8).  This was to
    fulfill the mystery of the Gentiles coming into Messianic blessing and becoming one body in Christ
    with believing Jews.  This mystery was predicted by the Old Testament prophets (Ephesians 2:11-
    22; 3:1-12; Romans 9-11; 15:8-16; Psalms 18:49; Deuteronomy 32:43; Psalms 117:1; Isaiah 11:1-
    10; 42:1-4; 52:13-15; 60:1-3; 65:1,2).

    d.  Blessing of the Outpoured Spirit

    The Old Testament prophets spoke of the coming outpouring of the Spirit under Messiah's ministry
    and in New Covenant times (Joel 2:28-32; Isaiah 44:3; Ezekiel 36:25-27; Zechariah 12:10).  These
    predictions were based on a covenant promise God had made to Abraham.  The blessing that was
    to come upon all nations through Abraham's seed was "the promise of the Spirit" (Galatians 3:

    Christ taught much concerning the coming of the Holy Spirit, the seal of the New Covenant (Luke 11:
    9-13; John 7:37-39; 14:16,17; 15:26; 16:7-15).  The fulfillment of this promise began in the Books of
    Acts as both Jew and Gentile were baptized in the Holy Spirit (Acts 2,10,11).

    e.  Blessing of Healing

    The prophets also foretold the Messiah's great healing ministry.  Not only would He bring spiritual
    healing of the soul and spirit, but also physical healing of the body.  Old Testament saints
    experienced touches of the healing power of the Lord at times.  Israel had been given the covenant
    of healing from Jehovah Rapha, the Lord that heals (Job 42:10; Exodus 15:20-27; Psalms 105:37; II
    chronicles 30:18-20).  David spoke of the twin blessings of forgiveness of sin and healing of
    diseases (Psalms 103:1-4).

    Prophet Isaiah foretold the fact that Messiah would take all our sickness and disease, as well as our
    sins, in His body on the tree and that by His stripes we would be healed (Isaiah 35; 53).  The New
    Testament writers clearly interpret this to be speaking of the Messiah's healing ministry, spiritually,
    as well as physically (Matthew 8:16,17; I Peter 2:24).  The Gospels abound with the healing ministry
    of Christ, which is a New Covenant blessing.  Jesus, as the New Covenant personified, did the
    Father's will and confirmed the promises made to the fathers  (Matthew 8,9,10; Luke 10:1-16;
    Romans 15:8).

    Thus Christ, the Twelve apostles, the Seventy others and all believers could know the blessing of
    healing as a New Covenant promise.  The healing ministry of Christ continues on in the Church
    (Mark 16:15-20; Acts 4; I Corinthians 12:1-12; James 5:14-16).  Old Covenant saints never
    witnessed such healing power as did the generation that received the New Covenant Messiah's

    f.  Blessing of Miracles

    In addition to spiritual and physical healing, the New Covenant Messiah blessed Jewry with great
    miracles: feeding the multitudes with bread and fish (Matthew 14,15); walking on the water (John 6:
    15-21); calming the troubled sea (Mark 4:36-41); water turned to wine (john 2), and many more
    miracles attested to the fact that Jesus was indeed confirming the covenant promise made to the
    father (John 20:30,31; Romans 15:8; Daniel 9:24-27).

    Miracles took place under Christ's ministry that never took place under previous covenants.  The gift
    of miracles has also been set in the Church to continue the New Covenant ministry of Christ (I
    Corinthians 12:1-13).

    g.  Blessing of Deliverance

    One of the greatest blessings that the New Covenant Christ brought was deliverance from the power
    of Satan and from demonic possession, oppression and bondage.  Jesus cast out the spirits with His
    word, and loosed people from Satanic power (Matthew 8:16,17; Mark 1:23-27,39; 5:1-20; Acts 10:
    38).  All this was in fulfillment of that promise given in the Adamic Covenant, that the seed of the
    woman would bruise and crush the serpent's head (Genesis 3:15).

    h.  Blessing of Resurrection

    When Adam and Eve broke the Edenic Covenant they came under the penalty of Death, which was
    Satan's greatest power (Genesis 2:16; Hebrews 2:14,15).  Old Testament saints looked forward to
    the breaking of the power of death (Psalms 16:9; 17:15; Isaiah 26:19; Job 19:25-27; Hosea 13:14;
    Daniel 12:1-3).  There were even foreshadowings and examples of God's power over death being
    broken (Genesis 5:24; Hebrews 11:5; I Kings 17:17-24; II Kings 4:18-37; Jude 9).  It was Christ, who
    both taught and demonstrated that He was the resurrection and the life, who conquered death for all
    mankind (John 5:28,29,; 6:39-54; 11:25,26,43,44;  Matthew 9:18-26; Luke 7:11-23).  In defeating
    Satan, who had the power of death, Jesus obtained the keys of death and hell (Hebrews 2:14,15;
    Revelation 1:18).  Man must experience spiritual resurrection from being dead in trespasses and
    sins to be able to experience the blessedness of the physical resurrection (John 5:24-29; Ephesians
    2:1-4; Revelation 20:1-6; Acts 24:15; I Corinthians 15).  God has given to the Church the power to at
    times raise people from the dead (Acts 9:36-42; 20:7-12).

    i.  Blessing of Eternal Life

    In contrast to the fullness of death brought by sin, the greatest promise of the New Covenant is the
    fullness of eternal life brought by faith in the righteousness of Christ (John 3:16).  This is to restore
    to man access to the tree of life which was taken from him under the Adamic Covenant after Adam
    had broken the Edenic Covenant (Genesis 2:17; Revelation 2:7; 22:2,14).  This eternal life includes
    the sharing in God's life, relationship with Him, the quality of His Divine life and the duration of life
    everlasting (I John 5:11,12; John 5:39,40; Galatians 2:20; Hebrews 7:16.

    2.  Promises of Cursing

    The curse was introduced when Adam fell from covenantal relationship in Eden's Paradise.  The curse was
    laid on the serpent and on the earth to affect all mankind.  The theme of the curse is seen also in the
    Noahic and Abrahamic Covenants.  Under the Mosaic Covenant tremendous curses were pronounced
    upon the chosen nation, Israel, if they failed to keep the terms of the covenant.  In the Palestine Covenant
    the curse was laid on the promised land in judgment upon the disobedience of the people of God.  
    However, the greatest curse ever to be uttered is that which is uttered by the Lord Jesus, the New
    Covenant Messiah (Hebrews 12:22-29).  It is threefold in its aspect and is all-inclusive in its implication,
    touching both time and eternity.

    a.  The Curse on the Jewish Nation

    Jesus came to His own people, the House of Judah, but His own received Him not (John 1:11).  In
    spite of the fact that Jesus Christ was the fulfillment of the covenants given to them and that they
    witnessed the greatest ministry ever in the history of mankind, they crucified Him.  In doing so they
    rejected Him who was the New Covenant personified.  There is no other covenant to be made
    beyond the New Covenant.  Their rejection resulted in a terrible curse being laid upon them by the
    Lord Jesus as well as by themselves.

    This curse was symbolized by Jesus cursing the fig tree at the roots never to bear fruit again.  Most
    expositors accept the fact that the fig tree was symbolic of the Jewish nation, who was fruitless,
    having nothing but the leaves of hypocritical religion (Mark 11:12-14, 20-22; Jeremiah 24).

    Also, when the Jews as a nation rejected Christ, they invoked upon themselves and their unborn
    generations the curse of innocent blood.  The curse of innocent blood cannot be lifted until they
    accept that blood for cleansing (Matthew 27:24,25; Deuteronomy 19:10; Numbers 35:33,34).

    b.  The Curse of the Wicked Nations

    Not only was the Jewish nation cursed for rejecting their Messiah, so all nations will be judged for
    rejecting Christ.  Throughout their history, all nations have been judged for their idolatry and
    immortality (Romans 1:18-32; Isaiah 60:12; Jeremiah 18:9,10).  This progression of judgment will
    culminate in the cursing of the nations in the Anti-Christal world system at the second coming of
    Christ (Daniel 2: 7; Revelation 18:1-5; Matthew 25:31-46).

    c.  The Eternal Curse

    This curse of curses is executed at the Great White Throne Judgment when all those who have
    rejected covenantal relationship with God will be banished to the lake of fire for eternal damnation
    (Revelation 14:9-11; 20:11-15; Matthew 25:41).

The Terms of the Covenant

    As all covenants, whether revocable or irrevocable, have certain term, so does the New Covenant.  As a
    covenant of grace depending on faith above works it is greater than the Mosaic Covenant of law which depended
    on works above faith.  God in His grace freely provided this New Covenant redemption, but grace did not exclude
    His setting forth of certain terms by which this redemption is received.  Though this covenant is irrevocable it is
    not unconditional.  Man must willingly receive what has been freely given (John 1:11-13).

    1.   Repentance

    When Adam sinned he was rejecting and turning away from the covenant God had made with him.  To
    restore covenantal relationship, man must respond to God's covenantal initiative by turning from sin back
    to a posture of receiving and keeping God's covenant.  This change of mind and turning to God is called

    This first command of the Gospel is man's initial step back into covenantal relationship with God.  Under
    the New Covenant man is called first to repent (Matthew 3:1-18; 4:17; Acts 2:37, 38; 17:30; 26:20,21;  
    Hebrews 6:1,21; Luke 24:49).  Genuine repentance brought about by the Word and Spirit of God is
    evidenced by genuine sorrow and change.  With faith, it results in the assurance of forgiveness of sins.

    2.  Faith

    Any covenant that is made requires trust and agreement with its words.  The recipients of previous
    covenants were men of faith (Hebrews 11).  Though in the New Covenant, repentance is the initial step, it
    is faith that becomes the channel through which the covenant benefits are received.  Faith is the attitude in
    which the covenant must be held (Mark 1:15; Acts 20:21; Hebrews 11:6; Ephesians 2:8).  In that Christ is
    the New Covenant personified, to be "in Christ" by believing in Him is to be in covenant with God (Acts 16:
    31; John 3:16,36; 6:47; Ephesians 1:1-4).

    3.  Obedience

    Faith is not only a passive attitude of trust in the person and words of the covenant, it also involves active
    obedience to the terms of the covenant (James 2:17-26; Hebrews 11:7,8).  Jesus Himself said "If ye love
    Me, keep My commandments" (John 14:15; 15:10).  In His teaching of the New Covenant, Jesus laid down
    many conditions.  This is illustrated by how often He attached the word "if" to His covenantal promises
    (John 15:1-10, 7:37; Mark 11:22-26; Matthew 5,6,7).  Through the New Covenant Jesus is "the author of
    eternal salvation to them that obey Him" (Hebrews 5:8,9).

    Though the believer of the New Covenant is not under the law of Moses, he is under the law of Christ  (I
    Corinthians 9:20,21).  The Old Covenant required legal obedience to its commandments but the New
    Covenant required loving obedience to the commandments of Jesus (John 14:15; I John 3:22-24).  The
    Old Covenant gave an external standard and required strict and full obedience to it before mercy was
    given.  The New Covenant imparts an internal standard as well as the grace to be able to keep it (II
    Corinthians 3; Hebrews 8:6-13; Jeremiah 31: 31-34).

    Jesus gave numerous commandments, some of which are listed here.

    a.  The first commandment to love God (Matthew 22:37,38).

    b. The second commandment to love our neighbor (Matthew 22:39,40; John 13:34).

    c.  The commandment of witness (Matthew 5:13-16).

    d.  The commandment of righteousness (Matthew 5:17-20)

    e.  The commandment of reconciliation (Matthew 5:21-26).

    f.  The commandment concerning adultery and divorce (Matthew 5:27-32; 19:1-9).

    g.  The commandment concerning oaths (Matthew 5:33-37).

    h.  The commandment concerning retaliation (Matthew 5:38-42).

    i.  The commandment concerning enemies (Matthew 5:43-47).

    j.  The commandment concerning perfection (Matthew 5:48).

    k.  The commandment concerning alms (Matthew 6:1-4).

    l.  The commandment concerning prayer (Matthew 6:5-13).

    m. The commandment concerning forgiveness (Matthew 6:14,15; 18:21-35).

    n. The commandment concerning fasting  (Matthew 6:16-18).

    o.  The commandment concerning values (Matthew 6:19-34).

    p.  The commandment concerning criticism (Matthew 7:1-5).

    q.  The commandment concerning discretion (Matthew 7:6).

    r.  The commandment concerning requests (Matthew 7:7-11).

    s.  The commandment concerning consideration (Matthew 7:12).

    t.  The commandment concerning self-discipline (Matthew 7:13,14).

    u.  The commandment concerning character and ministry (Matthew 7:15-23).

    v.  The commandment concerning obedience (Matthew 7:24-27).

    w.  The commandment concerning communion (Matthew 26:26-29).

    C.  The Oath of the Covenant

    As the Noahic, Abrahamic, and Davidic Covenants were confirmed with oaths, so also is the New Covenant.  The
    oath of this covenant is particularly focused on the priesthood of Christ.  Because the Abrahamic Covenant and
    Davidic Covenant were preparatory to the New Covenant, their King-Priesthood finds its fulfillment in Jesus.  The
    Book of Hebrews substantiate that Christ's priesthood is after the order of Melchisedek in that He lives in the
    power of an endless life (Hebrews 7).  Thus this oath of an unchangeable priesthood was given prophetically in
    the Old Testament and is fulfilled in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ.  It is this eternal priesthood of Christ that
    fulfills and abolishes the Aaronic priesthood of the Mosaic Covenant and makes the New Covenant irrevocable.

    x.  The commandment concerning water baptism (Matthew 28:19,20).

    y.  The commandment concerning the Gospel (Mark 16:15-18; Acts 1:8).

    z.  The commandment concerning the Holy Spirit (Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4,5).

    Jesus' commandments are summarized in the word "love" (Matthew 22:37-40); I John 5:3; II John 6;
    Romans 13:8-10).   While salvation is by grace through faith, the New Covenant believer who loves
    Jesus will keep His commandments.

    D.  The Book of the Covenant

    The 27 Books of the New Testament contain the elements of the New Covenant made by Christ.  For
    simplification it may be set out in the following manner:

    *  The Gospels - The Words and the Sacrifice of the Covenant.

    *  The Acts - The Sign and Seal of the New Covenant.

    *  The Epistles - The Sanctuary of the New Covenant.

    *   The Revelation - The Consummation and Realization of the New Covenant.

II.  The BLOOD of the Covenant

    A.  The Sacrifice of the Covenant

    1.  The Fulfillment of Old Testament Sacrifices

    The sacrifice of the New Covenant fulfills all previous covenantal sacrifices.  It is not only the supreme
    sacrifice, but it is also the only sacrifice that can thoroughly cleanse man from sin.  All others merely
    pointed to and were anticipatory of this once-for-all sacrifice for sin (Hebrews 9,10).

    2.  The Body and Blood of Jesus

    A study of the Old Testament sacrificial system given to Israel illustrates how particular God was when it
    came to the details concerning the body and blood of the victims.

    *  The body of the burnt Offering had to be wholly burnt on the altar; the blood had to be sprinkled
    according to God's command (Leviticus 1).

    *  Also the body and blood of the Sin and Trespass Offerings were dealt with in the God-ordained way
    (Leviticus 4,5).  The same was true concerning the sacrifices on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16); the
    sacrifice of the red heifer (Numbers 19), and the festival sacrifices (Exodus 12: Numbers 28,29; Leviticus

    All of this pointed to and finds its fulfillment in that which pertained to the body and blood of the New
    Covenant sacrifice of Jesus.  The Old Testament covenantal sacrifices typified the perfect, once-for-all
    sacrifice of Jesus.  All the sacrificial bodies and blood of previous covenants prophesied of Christ who is
    the New Covenant personified.

    The writer to the Hebrews devotes two chapters to the body and blood of Jesus in heaven for us.  Hebrews
    9 deals with the blood, while Hebrews 10 deals with the body; both chapters showing their supremacy over
    animal bodies and animal blood.  Untold thousands of animal sacrifices were offered in Old Testament
    times under covenant, but Jesus offered one perfect, sinless, human sacrifice, once-for-all (Hebrews 10:11-
    14).  The evidence of this sacrifice is in heaven.  The body and blood of Jesus are incorruptible and
    therefore eternal.  These will be the eternal evidences of our salvation, both having been supernaturally
    taken to heaven.  Jesus, of the New Covenant, would not have entered heaven without blood, even as
    Aaron of the Old Covenant dare not enter the earthly sanctuary without blood (Hebrews 9:7).  It is the
    blood which makes the atonement for the soul (Leviticus 17:11-14).  It is when God sees the blood of
    atonement that He accepts the believer (Exodus 12:12,13).

    The body and blood of Jesus did not perish at Jerusalem, nor did they see corruption.  They are in heaven
    for us now and have been accepted of the Father as the basis of Christ's mediatorial and intercessory
    ministry.  Following are some of the most outstanding truths concerning the New Covenant sacrifice, the
    holy body and holy blood of Jesus.

    a.  His Body

    (1)  His body in heaven is the result of the miraculous incarnation.  It is His virgin born body,
    prepared of the Holy Spirit in the virgin Mary on earth (Hebrews 10:5-8; Luke 1:30-33;
    Matthew 1:18-21).

    (2)  His body in heaven once experienced sinless infirmities, suffering and death, but now is
    resurrected, glorified, and no longer subject to weariness, pain or death (John 19:34,35).

    (3)  His body in heaven is the surety of our entrance into heaven (Hebrews 7:22).

    (4)  His body in heaven will be the eternal evidence of His perfect sacrifice, for it still has the
    wounds, though glorified, in His hands, feet, and side (John 20:24-29).

    (5)  His body in heaven is the guarantee that the bodies of the saints will be raised and
    glorified.  His body is the sample, the firstfruits of the harvest of the resurrected and
    immortalized redeemed  (I Corinthians 15:51-57; Philippians 3:21; I Thessalonians 4:15-18).

    (6)  His body originated on earth and was taken to heaven, thus transcending natural laws,
    moving in higher and spiritual laws.

    (7)  His body once sacrificed for sins as the New Covenant sacrifice, forever fulfills and
    abolishes all previous covenant sacrifices.  His sacrifice, as the Lamb of God, will be eternally
    fresh before the throne of God.  The cross was "the altar" upon which Jesus was sacrificed
    (Revelation 5:6; John 1:29,26; I Peter 1:19,20; Daniel 9:24-27; Hebrews 10:1-3; Hebrews 13:

    b.  His Blood

    The blood of Christ is the most holy and precious thing.  It is the only cleansing agent for sin in the
    universe (I Peter 1:18-20).  It is the blood of God (Acts 20:28).  It is far more valuable than animal
    blood, sinful human blood, for it is the Divine life, the blood of God.  It speaks to God on our behalf
    (Hebrews 12:22-24).  All true believers have faith in the blood of Jesus that was shed on earth at
    Calvary 2000 years ago but is now in heaven for us.

    Some of the benefits which the believer receives by reason of the New Covenant blood of Jesus
    being in heaven are noted here.

    (1)  Cleansing from sin by the blood (I John 1:7).

    (2)  Justification available by the blood (Romans 5:9).

    (3)  Redemption through the blood (Ephesians 1:7; Romans 5:9,10).

    (4)  Reconciliation through the blood (Colossians 1:20; Romans 3:25).

    (5)  Peace with God through the blood (Colossians 1:20).

    (6)  Access to God by the blood (Ephesians 2:13).

    (7)  Conscience purged through the blood (Hebrews 9:13).

    (8)  Sanctification by the blood (Hebrews 13:12).

    (9)  Communion through the blood (I Corinthians 10:16).

    (10)  Covenantal relationship through the blood (Hebrews 13:20).

    (11)  Kings and Priests unto God through the blood (Revelation 1:5; 5:9,10).

    (12)  Overcome Satan by the blood (Revelation 12:11).

    (13)  Eternal life through the blood (John 6:53-63).

    (14)  Perfection by the power of the blood (Hebrews 6:1-2; 7:11-19).

    All that the believer receives from God through Christ is because of the New Covenant efficacious
    blood of Jesus which is in heaven before the Father's throne.

    Theologically the sacrifice of Christ is spoken of as:

    (a)  An Atonement (Romans 5:11; John 1:29,36).

    (b)  A Propitiation (Romans 3:25; I John 2:2; 4:10).

    (c)  A Substitution (I Peter 3:18; Romans 5:8).

    (d)  A Redemption (Colossians 1:14).

    (e)  A Ransom (Mark 10:45; I Timothy 2:5,6).

    (f)  A Reconciliation (II Corinthians 5:18-21; Hebrews 2:17).

    These words together constitute the full truth of the Atoning work of the Lord Jesus Christ.  In the
    atonement the sinless Christ took our sins and iniquities and suffered the wrath of a righteous and
    holy God, receiving in Himself the penalty of sin which was death.  His death was not an accident but
    an accomplishment.  In contrast to all previous covenantal sacrifices, which were unwilling animals,
    Christ's New Covenant offering was of His own voluntary will (Psalms 40:6-8; Hebrews 10:1-10; John

    3.  The Table of the Lord

    The Lord Jesus, before His crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension, established an ordinance by which the
    Church could remember Him and partake of the power and presence of His sacrifice.  This ordinance is the
    Lord's Table, or the Communion (Matthew 26:26-28; Luke 22:19,20).

    The bread broken symbolized His broken body.  The outpoured wine symbolized His outpoured blood.  
    Thus the bread and the wine became symbolic of the New Covenant sacrifice of Jesus.  The table of the
    Lord is a covenant table.   Paul received special insight into the New Covenant table and wrote to the
    believers at Corinth concerning the necessity of eating and drinking worthily of the body of Christ, the
    covenantal sacrificial symbols (I Corinthians 11:23-34).  Every time believers gather together at the table of
    the Lord, they are confessing their unity and covenant relationship with the Lord and with each other.  
    Failure to properly discern the body of Christ is to betray each other.  It causes division and violates the
    covenant. Instead of bringing blessing it brings covenantal judgment.

    The body and blood of Jesus in heaven makes real and meaningful, by the power and presence of the
    Holy Spirit in earth, the bread and the wine to the Church as each ones partakes in faith (John 6:53-63;
    Hebrews 9:17-23).  The New Covenant table becomes our "altar" unto God for priestly communion, even
    as was the table of shewbread in the Old Covenant sanctuary (Hebrews 13:10-13; Exodus 25:23-30).

    4.  Spiritual Sacrifices

    Christ has commissioned the Church to offer spiritual sacrifices to God, not to atone for sins but to
    exemplify the spirit of the atonement (I Peter 2:5-9; Psalms 50:5).  The Church which Christ died for is to
    live out the implication of His death.  Some of these spiritual sacrifices are:

    a. Sacrifice of righteousness (Psalms 4:5; 51:19).

    b.  Sacrifice of joy (Psalms 27:6).

    c. Sacrifice of a broken and contrite spirit (Psalms 51:17).

    d. Sacrifice of thanksgiving (Psalms 107:22; 116:17).

    e. Sacrifice of our bodies as a living sacrifice (Romans 12:1, 2).

    f. Sacrifice of praise (Hebrews 13:15).

    g. Sacrifice of good deeds (Hebrews 13:16).

    h. Sacrifice of fellowship (Hebrews 13:16).

    B.  The Mediator of the Covenant

    1.  The Fulfillment of All Priesthood

    Under previous covenants, God had foreshadowed the coming priesthood of Christ under the New
    Covenant.  Patriarchal, Aaronic, Levitical, and Kingly-Priests all pointed to that which would be
    fulfilled in Christ and the Church.  That which was temporal in these priesthoods was abolished at
    the cross while that which is eternal passed through the cross and finds fulfillment in the New
    Covenant order of Melchisedek.

    2.  The Priesthood of Christ

    The priesthood of Christ as our New Covenant Mediator surpasses all that was typified in Old
    Covenant Mediators.  Christ is the mediator of a better covenant, which is the New Covenant
    (Hebrews 8:6; 9:15; I Timothy 2:5,6; Hebrews 12:24).

    The Epistle to the Hebrews especially sets forth the glories of Christ's priesthood in contrast to the
    mediatorial work and priesthood of Moses, Aaron and the Levites (Hebrews 5,6,7).

    Following are the major reasons why Christ's New Covenant priesthood supercedes all previous
    covenantal priesthoods.

    a.  He is a Sinless Priest (Hebrews 5:1-5; 8:1-4; 10:1-11).

    In contrast to Moses, Aaron, and all other priests who needed redemption, Christ needed no
    redemption.  He was a sinless High Priest and therefore far superior to any Old Covenant
    mediator.  The New Testament writers jealously guarded the fact of Christ's sinlessness (II
    Corinthians 5:18-21).

    b.  He is a Divine-Human Priest (Hebrews 2:17; John 1:1-3, 14-18; I Timothy 2:5).  Not only
    was Christ a sinless mediator.  He was also a perfect mediator, as a Divine-human person.  A
    mediator in the truest sense must be able to understand perfectly the parties which need
    reconciliation.  He must be able to fully identify with both to effectively mediate between them.  
    In other words, if Jesus Christ is to be a perfect mediator between a holy God and sinful man.  
    He must have the nature of God and the nature of man (sin excepted) to fully understand both
    and to effect reconciliation between them. Moses and Aaron or any other covenant priests
    could never do this fully because they had only one nature, sinful human nature.  No priest of
    the Old Testament could ever be a perfect mediator.

    Jesus Christ was the God-Man.  He was God, having the nature of God, thus identifying with
    God in His absolute holiness.  He also became Man, taking sinless humanity upon Himself and
    thus identifying with man.  It is this union of the Divine and Human natures in the one person
    of Christ which qualifies Him to be a perfect mediator between God and man.  He is the
    answer to the cry of Job for a Daysman "to lay His hand upon us both" (Job 9:32,33; 16:21; 19:
    25,27; 23:3-10).

    Because Christ is the New Covenant personified and because He is the God-Man by reason
    of the union of the Divine and Human natures in Him, He is able to be both offerer and
    offering, sacrifice and sacrificer, priest and gift, heavenly and earthly, spiritual and natural.  In
    His deity, He is the offerer, the sacrificer, the priest.  In His humanity, He is offering, sacrifice,
    and gift (Ephesians 5:2,25; Hebrews 8:3; 10:1-14; Galatians 2:20; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 2:17).

    On the cross it was the Divine nature offering the sinless human nature to God.  It was deity
    presenting sinless humanity to God as a perfect sacrifice for sin.  It was God atoning to God.  
    It was a sinless Man atoning for sinful man.  Only the miracle of the incarnation and the union
    of the two natures in the one person could make his possible.  Therefore, Jesus is both the
    New Covenant sacrifice (His human nature, His body and blood) and the New Covenant priest
    (His Divine nature).

    c.  He is a King-Priest

    His priesthood is after the Order of Melchisedek, that is, He is a King-Priest.  Previous
    covenants generally had priests, but only a few persons touched in measure that which
    belongs to the Order of Melchisedek.  Through Israel's history under the Mosaic Covenant,
    the Kingship was given to the tribe of Judah and the Priesthood was given to the tribe of Levi.  
    Jesus Christ combines in Himself both offices of King and Priest.  It is this that constitutes the
    New Covenant priesthood, as is noted in the following outline.

    (1)  Christ as Priest

    (a)  As Priest He speaks to God on behalf of man (Hebrews 5:1-10; 8:1).

    (b)  As Priest He was chosen from among men (Hebrews 5:1).

    (c)  As Priest He was appointed and anointed by God (Hebrews 5:4,10).

    (d)  As Priest He made the sacrifice for sin (Hebrews 5:1-5; 7:8-18; 8:1-5; Romans 3:25,26).

    (e)  As Priest He makes intercession (Hebrews 4:15; 7:25; 9:11-28; 10:19-22).

    (f)  As Priest He can be faithful to God, yet merciful to His people (Hebrews 5:1-6; 2:17,18).

    (g)  As Priest He can be the mediator between God and man (I Timothy 2:5,6; Zechariah 6:
    12,13; I John 2:1,9).

    (h) As our Great High Priest He can direct the Church, as His priestly body in earth is the
    ministry of reconciliation (II Corinthians 5:19-21).

    (i)  As Priest He can direct and lead the worship of the believing covenant community to the
    Father  (John 4:20-24; Revelation 5:1-10; Hebrews 2:12).

    (2)  Christ as King

    (a)  As King He sits enthroned with the Father God (Zechariah 6:12,13; Revelation 3:21; 22:1;
    Mark 16:15-20).

    (b)  As King He exercises authority over all things in heaven and earth (Matthew 28:18-20).

    (c)  As King all enemies are to be placed under His feet.  He reigns until the last enemy,
    death, has been destroyed (I Corinthians 15:24-28).

    (d)  As King He rules and reigns in righteousness, peace and joy (Romans 14:7; Isaiah 32:1).

    (e)  As King all the kingdoms of this world are to be subjected to Him (Daniel 7:1-4; Psalms 22:
    28; 72:11; Revelation 11:15-19).

    (f)  As King He rules in the Church, His Body, which is also after the Order of Melchisedek, or
    order of kings and priests unto God (I Peter 2:5-9; Revelation 1:5,6; 5:9,10; 20:6; Ephesians 1:

               3.  The Priesthood of All Believers

    In that the Church is the Body of Christ, it is the visible manifestation and expression of Christ in the earth.  
    Thus, the Church's ministry is an extension of His ministry.  The Church is identified with Christ in His
    Melchisedek priesthood as kings and priests unto God (I Peter 2:5-9; Revelation 1:5,6; 5:9,10; 20:6).  It is
    the Church, as a kingdom of priests, that fulfills the ministry offered to Israel at Mt. Sinai but was rejected
    by them (Exodus 19:3-6).  This ministry involves:

    a.  Priestly Ministry

    (1)  Priestly Worship (Revelation 5:9,10).

    (2)  Priestly Sacrifice (I Peter 2:5).

    (3)  Priestly Intercession (I Timothy 2:1,2).

    (4)  Priestly Reconciliation (II Corinthians 5:18-21).

    b.  Kingly Ministry

    (1)  Kingly Authority (Luke 10:17-20).

    (2)  Kingly Conquest (Romans 16:20).

    (3)  Kingly Administration (Revelation 20:6).

    (4)  Kingly Benevolence (Matthew 5:43-48).

    C.  Sanctuary of the Covenant

    1. The Fulfillment of Old Testament Sanctuaries

    The previous covenants had earthly and material altars and sanctuaries.  These were all patterned
    after the heavenly sanctuary and pointed to the fullest expression of God's sanctuary in the earth.

    Just as Christ is the fulfillment of all Old Testament sacrifices and priesthoods, so He is the fulfillment
    of all Old Testament sanctuaries.  By His incarnation He became the dwelling place of God (John 1:
    14; 2:18-21; II Corinthians 5:21; I Timothy 3:16; Colossians 1:19; 2:9).  Since the cross and the
    abolition of material temples "made with hands", the Church, both individually and corporately, has
    become God's New Covenant temple (Acts 7:47:50; I Corinthians 3:16,17; 6:16; Ephesians 2:19-22;
    I Peter 2:5-9).

    2.  The Heavenly Sanctuary

    Scripture clearly teaches the existence of a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 11:15-19; 15:1-5).  It
    was here that sin began when Satan and his angels rebelled (Isaiah 14:12-14; Ezekiel 28:11-19;
    John 8:44), making the heavens unclean in God's sight (Job 15:15).  Christ left the heavenly
    sanctuary and by the incarnation took upon Himself body and blood.  He made the supreme sacrifice
    for sin, whereby both the heavens and the earth would be cleansed from the power and presence of
    sin.  The writer to the Hebrews declares that after His completed sacrifice on earth, Christ ascended
    back to the heavenly sanctuary from which He exercises His King-Priestly ministry (Hebrews 8,9).

    3.  The Lord Jesus Christ

    Coming from the heavenly eternal sanctuary Christ fulfilled the earthly temporal sanctuaries in His
    own being.  As the Word made flesh He became God's perfect tabernacle.  The fullness of the
    Godhead dwelt in Him bodily (John 1:14; Colossians 1:19; 2:9).  In Him God's name and Shekinah
    Glory were revealed (Acts 2:34-36; John 1:14-18; Matthew 17:1-5).  He was God's earthly temple as
    well as God's eternal temple (John 2:18-21; Revelation 21:22).

    4.  The Church

    Christ not only ministers in the heavenly sanctuary but also ministers in the Church, His earthly
    sanctuary (Revelation 1; 2; 3;).  Even under Old Testament times there was both the earthly and
    heavenly sanctuaries (I Kings 7,8). Since the ascension of Christ the Church has been God's earthly
    dwelling place replacing all previous earthly dwelling places and sanctuaries (Acts 7:46-50).  God's
    name and glory are now revealed in the Church which is Christ's Body (Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 2:34-
    36; Ephesians 3:21; 1:19-23).  It is the coming together of the members of the Body of Christ that
    constitutes the place of the New Covenant priesthood, sacrifice and sanctuary in the earth (Matthew
    18:20; Ephesians 2:19,20; Hebrews 10:25; I Peter 2:5-9; I Timothy 3:15,16).

III.  The SEAL of the New Covenant

As the seals of previous covenants were given to be ongoing reminders of the authenticity and validity of the covenant,
so God attached a seal to the New Covenant to do the same thing.  In this respect, each covenant had its own sign or
seal and God never took the seal of one covenant and attached it to another.  However, the seals of all previous
covenants are fulfilled in the seal of the New Covenant.  In the scope of the New Covenant, the temporal and earthly
elements are swallowed up in its spiritual reality.

In the Gospels, we find that Jesus Christ Himself, the New Covenant sacrifice and priest, spoke many covenant words
concerning the coming of the Holy Spirit, for the Holy Spirit Himself is the seal of the New Covenant (John 14,15,16).  
The Holy Spirit is the New Covenant seal personified, as Jesus is the New Covenant words, sacrifice, priest and
sanctuary personified.

The Holy Spirit is spoken of as:

*  The
Seal of the Covenant (Ephesians 1:13,14; 4:20; II Corinthians 1:22).

*  He gives the
Sign of the Covenant which was evidenced in the speaking with other tongues on the Day of Pentecost
(Mark 16:15-20; Acts 2:1-4).

*  He is also the
Executor of the covenant to see that the last will and testament of Jesus is carried out in the believer's
life (John 14:26; 15:26).

It is His indwelling in the believer that makes possible the blessings of the covenant, that validates his faith in the
covenant that enables obedience to the covenant and makes him God's covenant sanctuary.

Though Old Testament saints were temporarily anointed and energized by the Spirit, it is only the New Covenant saints
that experience His indwelling and abiding presence (Judges 6:34; 14:6; John 14:16,17; Romans 8:9; I Corinthians 3:
16; I John 2:20,27).

In that Jesus is the mediator and personification of the New Covenant, He has received the Spirit without measure.  He
also has the prerogative to administer the Holy Spirit as the seal of the New Covenant (John 1:32,33; 3:33,34; Matthew
3:11; Acts 1:5; Luke 24:49; John 15:26).  The New Covenant believer is to experience the
fullness of the Holy Spirit's

Because the Holy Spirit Himself is the seal of the New Covenant and is the fulfillment of all previous signs and seals, we
note in outline form His major operations in the New Covenant believer.

    A.  The Holy Spirit brings the new birth (John 3:5,6; Titus 3:5).

    B.  The Holy Spirit indwells the believer's spirit (Romans 8:9; John 14:16,17; I Corinthians 3:16; 6:17; I John 2:27).

    C.  The Holy Spirit is the anointing who abides within and teaches the New Covenant believer (I John 2:20,27;
    John 16:13).

    D.  The Holy Spirit gives assurance of salvation (Romans 8:16).

    E.  The Holy Spirit fills the believer with Himself (Acts 2:4; Ephesians 5:18).

    F.  The Holy Spirit by the baptism in the Spirit enables the New Covenant believer to speak in unknown
    languages and edify himself (Acts 2:4; 10:44-46; Mark 16:17; I Corinthians 14:2,4,18).

    G.  The Holy Spirit enables the believer to pray (Jude 20; Romans 8:26-28).

    H.  The Holy Spirit enables the New Covenant believer to worship in spirit and in truth (John 4:23,24; Philippians 3:
    3; I Corinthians 14:15).

    I.  The Holy Spirit leads and guides the believer into all truth (John 16:13; Romans 8:14).

    J.  The Holy Spirit enables the believer to put to death the deeds of the flesh (Romans 8:13).

    K.  The Holy Spirit produces the Christ-like nature and character in the life of the believer (Galatians 5:22,23; II
    Peter 1:4).

    L.  The Holy Spirit empowers the New Covenant believer to be a witness for Christ (Acts 1:8; Isaiah 61:1; Luke 24:

    M.  The Holy Spirit gives spiritual gifts to those whom He fills (I Corinthians 12:7-13).

    N.  The Holy Spirit will bring about the resurrection and immortality of the believer's body in the last day.  Such will
    consummate the Spirit's work as the seal of God (Romans 8:11; I Corinthians 15:47-51; I Thessalonians 4:15-18).

The acceptance of the New Covenant words, promises, sacrifice and priesthood in Christ Himself makes it possible for
the New Covenant believer to receive the Holy Spirit Himself, as the New Covenant seal. The seal of the New Covenant
is a person, the blessed Spirit Himself.

The operations of the Spirit are spoken of as:

*  The Seal (Ephesians 1:13; 14; 4:30);

*  The Earnest (II Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Ephesians 1:13,14);

*  The Firstfruits (Romans 8:23).

These operations point to the fact that the fullness and consummation of such operations, made possible by the New
Covenant, will bring us into that which was planned by God in the Everlasting Covenant (Hebrews 13:20).


In contrast to previous covenants with their animal sacrifices and impersonal seals, the New Covenant distinctly involves
each of the persons in the Godhead.

The Father - The Words of the Covenant spoken by Jesus were the Father's words (John 12:44-50; 8:38).

The Son - The Body and Blood of Jesus were the Sacrifice of the Covenant, and He is also the Priest (Hebrews 10:5-
10-,29; 12:24; 13:20).

The Holy Spirit - The Seal of the New Covenant is the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 1:13, 14; 4:20; II Corinthians 1:22).


The Covenants, by Kevin J. Conner and Ken Malmin, Copyright 1983, Bible Temple Publishing.