|THE NEW COVENANT - The Lord Jesus Christ
"The Covenant of Consummation"
Kevin J. Conner and Ken Malmin
HIS GLORY REIGNS
Mar 2 2008
The cycle of Covenant, Probation, Failure and Judgment certainly completes itself in relation to the chosen nation, and
more especially the House of Judah, although representatively the House of Israel is included, at the first coming of the
Lord Jesus Christ.
The chosen nation of Israel was a nation "to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the
covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers and
of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever" (Romans 9:4,5).
The Edenic Covenant had been made with Adam before the entrance of sin. The Adamic Covenant was made after sin
involving redemption for Adam's race. The Noahic Covenant had been made with the whole of mankind and all
creatures. But all succeeding covenants had been made virtually with the chosen nation, Israel. It began with the
Abrahamic Covenant, then progressed through the Mosaic, the Palestinian, and the Davidic Covenants. Covenantal
revelation would consummate in the making of the New Covenant by their promised Messiah.
However, the tragic history of the nation shows repeated failure and judgment in spite of God's covenantal grace to the
people of His choice. The Lord Jesus Christ came born of a virgin, as the seed of the woman, the seed of Abraham,
Isaac, Jacob and the seed of the house of David. He came to bring redemption from sin to them, as well as all other
nations. He came to reveal God the Father to them. He came as the fulfillment and the fulfiller of all covenantal
promises given to their fathers (Romans 15:8). By the time Christ came, the leaders of the Jewish nation had perverted
and twisted the Mosaic Covenant by their traditions (Mark 7:1-15). They had become spiritually proud of their choice
under the Abrahamic Covenant. They were characterized by hypocrisy, arrogance, and lack of any spiritual perception.
Thus after 3-1/2 years of miraculous ministry in word and deed, confirming the covenants of redemption, Jewry, as a
whole, rejected the Christ of God. The Jewish Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to be crucified, and under Roman authority
put Him to death. The nation filled up their cup of iniquity (Matthew 23:32). The crucifixion was the final act of
transgression. Even after the Lord Jesus had made the New Covenant with the twelve apostles, had died, been
resurrected and had poured out the Holy Spirit, grace was extended to Israel for another 40 years. But in 70 A.D. the
period of probation for the nation came to an end. God allowed Prince Titus and the Roman armies to conquer the city
of Jerusalem, destroy the Temple, and scatter Jewry from the land of Palestine. They became a people under
covenant judgment and the curse of innocent blood.
There is no hope for Israel outside of Christ and New Covenant relationship with God through Him. The New Covenant
is the last covenant ever to be made with the House of Israel and the House of Judah (Jeremiah 31:31-34). To have
been the recipients of previous covenants and to reject the New Covenant of God in Christ is to be placed outside of
covenant promises and blessings for all eternity.
When it comes to the revelation of the New Covenant we discover that both God's foreknowledge and foreordained
purpose are illustrated by the types and prophecies found under the Old Testament.
two covenants. Ishmael (Genesis 16) represented the Mosaic Covenant of law and works. Isaac (Genesis
21,22), represented the New Covenant of grace and faith. When Isaac was weaned it became apparent
that Ishmael could not be the heir of the Abrahamic Covenant (Genesis 21). This foreshadowed that the
Mosaic Covenant would be fulfilled and abolished when the New Covenant was ratified (Hebrews 10:
of the Old Covenant were written in two tables of stone, although glorious, they were to be done away
with. This pointed to the words of the New Covenant which are written on the two tables of the heart and
mind. These are more glorious and are to last forever (Exodus 20; 31:18; Hebrews 8:6-13; 10:16,17).
Covenant to the New Covenant. Israel was married at Mt. Sinai on the basis of the Mosaic Covenant. This
marriage ended in divorce by reason of adultery (Jeremiah 3:1-14; 31:31-34; Isaiah 50:1). Because of the
death and resurrection involved in the New Covenant Israel may now be joined to Christ in a new marriage.
Gentiles, the Uncircumcision, being justified by faith under the New Covenant. He also referred to the
Jews, who were the Circumcision, under the Mosaic Covenant, as being justified by faith also under the
New Covenant. Therefore, by reason of the New Covenant, Abraham is the father of all who believe,
whether Jew or Gentile, Circumcision or Uncircumcision.
Gentile (Romans 2:24-29; Philippians 3:3).
prophets of Israel and Judah were under the Mosaic Covenant they were able to prophesy of the New Covenants.
words and spirit of the coming New Covenant (Isaiah 59:20,21; 61:8). That this was prophetic of the New
Covenant is confirmed by the apostle Paul Romans 11:26,27.
said He would make with the House of Judah and the House of Israel in the last days (Jeremiah 31:31-34;
Hebrews 8; Jeremiah 32:38-40). It is this utterance that was dealt with by the writer to the Hebrews. He
clearly stated how the Mosaic Covenant had become old, decayed, and was ready to vanish away once
the New Covenant was established (Hebrews 8:6-13; 10:16,17,29; 12:24; 13:20). Its promises involved a
new heart and a new mind upon which the laws of God would be written instead of upon tables of stone.
Israel were under the Mosaic Covenant they prophesied of the New Covenant, which would be a better
covenant. Ezekiel spoke of the fact that this covenant would be a covenant of peace (Ezekiel 34:25). It
would involve cleansing by water, the reception of a new heart, and a new spirit by the power of the Holy
Spirit's work and the removal of the stony heart. These things are New Covenant promises (Ezekiel 11:16-
21; 20:37; 37:25-27).
marriage he experienced. Hosea found that his wife, the mother of his children, had played the harlot.
Under God's instruction he put her away. The children born of Gomer had symbolic names: "Lo ru-hamah"
meaning "Not having obtained mercy" and "Lo-ammi", "Not My people, and I will not be your God" (Hosea 1:
a bill of divorce (Jeremiah 3:1-14; Isaiah 50:1). He cast her off and thus they did not obtain mercy, they
were not His people, and He was not their God under the Old Covenant economy.
the sea (an Abrahamic Covenant promise), and in due time would become the sons of the living God (a
New Covenant promise). Hosea 1:10,11.
the fact that though national Israel was divorced under the Old Covenant, by redemption under the New
Covenant, at the cross, they could be restored back to God in covenantal relationship.
show that under the Old Covenant both Israel and the Gentiles found no mercy, and were not the people
of God. But now, under the New Covenant, in Christ, they find mercy and become His people and He
becomes their God (Romans 9:24-33; 11:26-32; I Peter 2:9,10).
the Lord Jesus Christ is the New Covenant personified.
Spirit, spoke through the prophet Isaiah concerning the Messiah, His Son, saying: "I will give THEE for a covenant
of the people" (Isaiah 42:6,7; 49:5-8 with II Corinthians 6:2).
relative to all other covenants.
New Covenant, came to be the fulfillment of the Messianic promises in those covenants and by the cross
abolish the temporal elements in those covenants. This may be illustrated by these examples.
fulfillment of the "seed promises."
was abolished by the cross. It was replaced by circumcision of the heart and spirit; an internal rather than
external seal. This temporal element of the Abrahamic Covenant was fulfilled and abolished (Matthew 1:1;
Romans 2:25-29; Colossians 2:11,12).
sacrifices, priesthood, festival and sanctuary services. All of this was fulfilled and abolished at the cross by
Christ. It was done away by fulfillment (II Corinthians 3; Hebrews 8-10).
abolished the temporal elements, it made possible the everlasting elements in these same covenants.
gives everlasting life to all who believe on Him (Hebrews 7:16; John 3:16).
Covenant and the "everlasting throne and kingdom" of the Davidic Covenant can only be possible in and
through Christ. It is the everlasting New Covenant, which is primarily spiritual and eternal in its elements
that makes possible all the everlasting elements in former covenants.
I. The WORDS of the Covenant
When considering the words of the New Covenant it is necessary to begin with all the words of Jesus spoken in the
Gospels. Then we may add to these the truths built on them in the Acts, the Epistles and Revelation. The words and
blessings of the New Covenant, though voluminous, may be condensed in the following outline.
blessings. Jesus Christ was made a minister of the circumcision "to confirm the promises made unto the fathers"
Abraham's seed all nations were to be blessed. This finds its fulfillment in New Covenant blessing (Genesis 12:3;
Galatians 3:8). The preaching, teaching, saving and healing ministry of Jesus Christ was all a confirmation of the
covenants made with Adam, Abraham, Noah, Israel, and David. All were intended to restore man back to the
blessing and purpose God intended in the Edenic Covenant. However, the blessings of the New Covenant go far
beyond those of Old Testament covenants.
blessing" (Ephesians 1:1-3) that Christ came to bring. Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world (John
4:42; Acts 13:23). Theologically this "so great salvation" includes the following benefits, all made
possible by the New Covenant in Christ (Hebrews 2:3).
Jesus forgave sins (Luke 7:36-50; Matthew 9:2; Mark 2:5) and brought salvation to sinners
(Luke 19:1-10). The Old Covenant simply covered forgiven sin while the New Covenant
provides cleansing of forgiven sin (I John 1:5-9).
before God through Christ (Romans 5:1; 3:24-26). By the works of the Law, the Mosaic
Covenant, none could be justified (Roman 3:19,20; Acts 15:8-11). The New Covenant makes
possible justification by faith in an accomplished work.
"Father" (John 3:1-5; Matthew 6:9; I Peter 1:23). Under the Old Covenant none could be born
again, but the New Covenant makes possible the miracle of the new birth.
the Word of God (Hebrews 5:8,9; 6:10-12; 10:38,39; I John 3:19). The Old Covenant
believers never had the blessed assurance that New Covenant believers are given.
(John 17:17; I Thessalonians 5:23,24; Ephesians 5:26,27). The Old Covenant believers
generally did not experience the blessing of sanctification made available for every believer
under the New Covenant.
Galatians 4:5; Ephesians 1:13,14). By this act we are set in as mature members of the family
of God and Jesus is the Firstborn among a vast family of brethren (Matthew 11:46-50;
Romans 8:29). The Old Covenant believers never experienced this sonship as do New
final work of redemption in the perfected saints. Man fell from the glory of God when he
sinned under the Edenic Covenant (Romans 3:23). The New Covenant makes provision for
the believer from justification to glorification (Romans 8:17,30). Old Covenant saints saw and
experienced in small measure the glory of God. His majesty and brightness. The New
Covenant brings the believer into the fullness of the glory of God (John 17:22-24; II
measure there is a uniqueness to these blessings because of New Covenant believer's experience
of being "in Christ" by the miracle of the new birth. Those under the Adamic, Noahic, Abrahamic,
and Davidic Covenants certainly knew pardon and justification by faith, all in anticipation of that
which would come under the New Covenant (Hebrews 11; Romans 4). There were those even under
the Mosaic Covenant who experienced pardon, justification, and sanctification by faith in the coming
New Testament. However, the New Covenant sacrifice in Christ would make available redemption
and salvation for all believers whether they were under the Old Testament or the New Testament
(Hebrews 9:6-15). Such salvation and righteousness had been prophesied by the Old Testament
prophets (Isaiah 51:1; 4-8; 53:11,12; Jeremiah 23:5,6; 33:15,16).
involved the preaching and teaching ministry of Christ. The preaching and teaching of Jesus was an
integral part of the words of the New Covenant, the Gospel of the Kingdom (Matthew 4:23-25; 9:35;
Matthew 16:15-20). The Gospel of the Kingdom has to be preached to all the world for a witness to
all nations before the end comes (Matthew 24:14; Matthew 28:18-20).
20:17-27; 28:23,31). By the preaching and reception of the Gospel people are born into the
kingdom of God (John 3:1-5) and added to His Church (Acts 2:41-47; 5:14; 11:24). They are
translated from the kingdom of darkness, given citizenship in the heavenly kingdom and seated with
Christ on the throne of the kingdom (Colossians 1:13,14; Ephesians 2:5-19).
Covenant believers. Though these words are found in the Gospels as a whole, the major truths are
especially in Matthew's didactic Gospel and these may be grouped in the following manner.
(11) Concerning Offences and Forgiveness - Matthew 18; Mark; Luke 17:1-6.
(12) Concerning Divorce, Marriage, and Children - Matthew 19:1-5; Mark 10:1-16.
(13) Concerning Riches and Stewardship - Matthew 19:16-30; Luke 12; 16:1-12.
(14) Having a Servant spirit - Matthew 20:17-28; Mark 10:32-45.
(15) The Cost of Discipleship - Luke 14.
(16) Concerning Taxes - Matthew 17:24-27; 22:15-22.
(17) Concerning Hell - Luke 16:19-31.
(18) Concerning Resurrection - Matthew 22:23-33; John 5.
(19) The Two Great Commandments of Love - Matthew 22:34-40.
(20) Concerning Hypocrisy - Matthew 23; Mark 11:37-54.
(21) Concerning Worship - John 4.
(22) Concerning True Judgment - John 8:1-11.
(23) Concerning Father God - John 8:12-59.
(24) Concerning True Shepherds - John 10.
(25) Concerning Washing one another's feet - John 13.
(26) Concerning the Ministry of the Holy Spirit - John 14,15,16.
(27) Concerning Prayer for Unity among believers - John 17.
(28) Concerning Apocalyptic Events - Matthew 24; Mark 13; Luke 17:20-37; Luke 21.
(29) Concerning the Lord's Covenant Table - Matthew 26:17-30.
(30) Concerning the Great Commission to Evangelize - Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:15-20; Luke 24:
Things that are written in the Acts, the Epistles and Revelation are the words of Jesus given by the
Holy Spirit through the apostles. All are amplification and application of the "seed-words" of Jesus.
These are the New Covenant words. The Church is to preach, teach, and live the laws and
principles of the Gospel of the Kingdom.
promised in the Abrahamic Covenant. But under the Mosaic Covenant the Gentile nations were
excluded from blessing until the Messiah would come. In the beginning of His ministry Christ forbade
His disciples to go to the Gentiles but rather to focus upon the lost sheep of the House of Israel
(Matthew 10:1-8). This was to give the Jews the first opportunity to receive the Messiah. However,
as the unbelief and harness of the Jews' heart was exposed, Christ began to minister to Gentiles,
illustrating His intention to open the door of faith to the Gentiles in due time (John 1:11,12; Matthew
8:5-13; John 4:1-42; Matthew 15:21-28; Acts 14:27).
the Gospel to all nations (Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15-20; Acts 1:8; Galatians 3:8). This was to
fulfill the mystery of the Gentiles coming into Messianic blessing and becoming one body in Christ
with believing Jews. This mystery was predicted by the Old Testament prophets (Ephesians 2:11-
22; 3:1-12; Romans 9-11; 15:8-16; Psalms 18:49; Deuteronomy 32:43; Psalms 117:1; Isaiah 11:1-
10; 42:1-4; 52:13-15; 60:1-3; 65:1,2).
and in New Covenant times (Joel 2:28-32; Isaiah 44:3; Ezekiel 36:25-27; Zechariah 12:10). These
predictions were based on a covenant promise God had made to Abraham. The blessing that was
to come upon all nations through Abraham's seed was "the promise of the Spirit" (Galatians 3:
9-13; John 7:37-39; 14:16,17; 15:26; 16:7-15). The fulfillment of this promise began in the Books of
Acts as both Jew and Gentile were baptized in the Holy Spirit (Acts 2,10,11).
healing of the soul and spirit, but also physical healing of the body. Old Testament saints
experienced touches of the healing power of the Lord at times. Israel had been given the covenant
of healing from Jehovah Rapha, the Lord that heals (Job 42:10; Exodus 15:20-27; Psalms 105:37; II
chronicles 30:18-20). David spoke of the twin blessings of forgiveness of sin and healing of
diseases (Psalms 103:1-4).
sins, in His body on the tree and that by His stripes we would be healed (Isaiah 35; 53). The New
Testament writers clearly interpret this to be speaking of the Messiah's healing ministry, spiritually,
as well as physically (Matthew 8:16,17; I Peter 2:24). The Gospels abound with the healing ministry
of Christ, which is a New Covenant blessing. Jesus, as the New Covenant personified, did the
Father's will and confirmed the promises made to the fathers (Matthew 8,9,10; Luke 10:1-16;
healing as a New Covenant promise. The healing ministry of Christ continues on in the Church
(Mark 16:15-20; Acts 4; I Corinthians 12:1-12; James 5:14-16). Old Covenant saints never
witnessed such healing power as did the generation that received the New Covenant Messiah's
miracles: feeding the multitudes with bread and fish (Matthew 14,15); walking on the water (John 6:
15-21); calming the troubled sea (Mark 4:36-41); water turned to wine (john 2), and many more
miracles attested to the fact that Jesus was indeed confirming the covenant promise made to the
father (John 20:30,31; Romans 15:8; Daniel 9:24-27).
of miracles has also been set in the Church to continue the New Covenant ministry of Christ (I
of Satan and from demonic possession, oppression and bondage. Jesus cast out the spirits with His
word, and loosed people from Satanic power (Matthew 8:16,17; Mark 1:23-27,39; 5:1-20; Acts 10:
38). All this was in fulfillment of that promise given in the Adamic Covenant, that the seed of the
woman would bruise and crush the serpent's head (Genesis 3:15).
h. Blessing of Resurrection
When Adam and Eve broke the Edenic Covenant they came under the penalty of Death, which was
Satan's greatest power (Genesis 2:16; Hebrews 2:14,15). Old Testament saints looked forward to
the breaking of the power of death (Psalms 16:9; 17:15; Isaiah 26:19; Job 19:25-27; Hosea 13:14;
Daniel 12:1-3). There were even foreshadowings and examples of God's power over death being
broken (Genesis 5:24; Hebrews 11:5; I Kings 17:17-24; II Kings 4:18-37; Jude 9). It was Christ, who
both taught and demonstrated that He was the resurrection and the life, who conquered death for all
mankind (John 5:28,29,; 6:39-54; 11:25,26,43,44; Matthew 9:18-26; Luke 7:11-23). In defeating
Satan, who had the power of death, Jesus obtained the keys of death and hell (Hebrews 2:14,15;
Revelation 1:18). Man must experience spiritual resurrection from being dead in trespasses and
sins to be able to experience the blessedness of the physical resurrection (John 5:24-29; Ephesians
2:1-4; Revelation 20:1-6; Acts 24:15; I Corinthians 15). God has given to the Church the power to at
times raise people from the dead (Acts 9:36-42; 20:7-12).
i. Blessing of Eternal Life
In contrast to the fullness of death brought by sin, the greatest promise of the New Covenant is the
fullness of eternal life brought by faith in the righteousness of Christ (John 3:16). This is to restore
to man access to the tree of life which was taken from him under the Adamic Covenant after Adam
had broken the Edenic Covenant (Genesis 2:17; Revelation 2:7; 22:2,14). This eternal life includes
the sharing in God's life, relationship with Him, the quality of His Divine life and the duration of life
everlasting (I John 5:11,12; John 5:39,40; Galatians 2:20; Hebrews 7:16.
laid on the serpent and on the earth to affect all mankind. The theme of the curse is seen also in the
Noahic and Abrahamic Covenants. Under the Mosaic Covenant tremendous curses were pronounced
upon the chosen nation, Israel, if they failed to keep the terms of the covenant. In the Palestine Covenant
the curse was laid on the promised land in judgment upon the disobedience of the people of God.
However, the greatest curse ever to be uttered is that which is uttered by the Lord Jesus, the New
Covenant Messiah (Hebrews 12:22-29). It is threefold in its aspect and is all-inclusive in its implication,
touching both time and eternity.
a. The Curse on the Jewish Nation
Jesus came to His own people, the House of Judah, but His own received Him not (John 1:11). In
spite of the fact that Jesus Christ was the fulfillment of the covenants given to them and that they
witnessed the greatest ministry ever in the history of mankind, they crucified Him. In doing so they
rejected Him who was the New Covenant personified. There is no other covenant to be made
beyond the New Covenant. Their rejection resulted in a terrible curse being laid upon them by the
Lord Jesus as well as by themselves.
This curse was symbolized by Jesus cursing the fig tree at the roots never to bear fruit again. Most
expositors accept the fact that the fig tree was symbolic of the Jewish nation, who was fruitless,
having nothing but the leaves of hypocritical religion (Mark 11:12-14, 20-22; Jeremiah 24).
Also, when the Jews as a nation rejected Christ, they invoked upon themselves and their unborn
generations the curse of innocent blood. The curse of innocent blood cannot be lifted until they
accept that blood for cleansing (Matthew 27:24,25; Deuteronomy 19:10; Numbers 35:33,34).
b. The Curse of the Wicked Nations
Not only was the Jewish nation cursed for rejecting their Messiah, so all nations will be judged for
rejecting Christ. Throughout their history, all nations have been judged for their idolatry and
immortality (Romans 1:18-32; Isaiah 60:12; Jeremiah 18:9,10). This progression of judgment will
culminate in the cursing of the nations in the Anti-Christal world system at the second coming of
Christ (Daniel 2: 7; Revelation 18:1-5; Matthew 25:31-46).
c. The Eternal Curse
This curse of curses is executed at the Great White Throne Judgment when all those who have
rejected covenantal relationship with God will be banished to the lake of fire for eternal damnation
(Revelation 14:9-11; 20:11-15; Matthew 25:41).
B. The Terms of the Covenant
covenant of grace depending on faith above works it is greater than the Mosaic Covenant of law which depended
on works above faith. God in His grace freely provided this New Covenant redemption, but grace did not exclude
His setting forth of certain terms by which this redemption is received. Though this covenant is irrevocable it is
not unconditional. Man must willingly receive what has been freely given (John 1:11-13).
restore covenantal relationship, man must respond to God's covenantal initiative by turning from sin back
to a posture of receiving and keeping God's covenant. This change of mind and turning to God is called
the New Covenant man is called first to repent (Matthew 3:1-18; 4:17; Acts 2:37, 38; 17:30; 26:20,21;
Hebrews 6:1,21; Luke 24:49). Genuine repentance brought about by the Word and Spirit of God is
evidenced by genuine sorrow and change. With faith, it results in the assurance of forgiveness of sins.
covenants were men of faith (Hebrews 11). Though in the New Covenant, repentance is the initial step, it
is faith that becomes the channel through which the covenant benefits are received. Faith is the attitude in
which the covenant must be held (Mark 1:15; Acts 20:21; Hebrews 11:6; Ephesians 2:8). In that Christ is
the New Covenant personified, to be "in Christ" by believing in Him is to be in covenant with God (Acts 16:
31; John 3:16,36; 6:47; Ephesians 1:1-4).
obedience to the terms of the covenant (James 2:17-26; Hebrews 11:7,8). Jesus Himself said "If ye love
Me, keep My commandments" (John 14:15; 15:10). In His teaching of the New Covenant, Jesus laid down
many conditions. This is illustrated by how often He attached the word "if" to His covenantal promises
(John 15:1-10, 7:37; Mark 11:22-26; Matthew 5,6,7). Through the New Covenant Jesus is "the author of
eternal salvation to them that obey Him" (Hebrews 5:8,9).
Corinthians 9:20,21). The Old Covenant required legal obedience to its commandments but the New
Covenant required loving obedience to the commandments of Jesus (John 14:15; I John 3:22-24). The
Old Covenant gave an external standard and required strict and full obedience to it before mercy was
given. The New Covenant imparts an internal standard as well as the grace to be able to keep it (II
Corinthians 3; Hebrews 8:6-13; Jeremiah 31: 31-34).
b. The second commandment to love our neighbor (Matthew 22:39,40; John 13:34).
c. The commandment of witness (Matthew 5:13-16).
d. The commandment of righteousness (Matthew 5:17-20)
e. The commandment of reconciliation (Matthew 5:21-26).
f. The commandment concerning adultery and divorce (Matthew 5:27-32; 19:1-9).
g. The commandment concerning oaths (Matthew 5:33-37).
h. The commandment concerning retaliation (Matthew 5:38-42).
i. The commandment concerning enemies (Matthew 5:43-47).
j. The commandment concerning perfection (Matthew 5:48).
k. The commandment concerning alms (Matthew 6:1-4).
l. The commandment concerning prayer (Matthew 6:5-13).
m. The commandment concerning forgiveness (Matthew 6:14,15; 18:21-35).
n. The commandment concerning fasting (Matthew 6:16-18).
o. The commandment concerning values (Matthew 6:19-34).
p. The commandment concerning criticism (Matthew 7:1-5).
q. The commandment concerning discretion (Matthew 7:6).
r. The commandment concerning requests (Matthew 7:7-11).
s. The commandment concerning consideration (Matthew 7:12).
t. The commandment concerning self-discipline (Matthew 7:13,14).
u. The commandment concerning character and ministry (Matthew 7:15-23).
v. The commandment concerning obedience (Matthew 7:24-27).
w. The commandment concerning communion (Matthew 26:26-29).
oath of this covenant is particularly focused on the priesthood of Christ. Because the Abrahamic Covenant and
Davidic Covenant were preparatory to the New Covenant, their King-Priesthood finds its fulfillment in Jesus. The
Book of Hebrews substantiate that Christ's priesthood is after the order of Melchisedek in that He lives in the
power of an endless life (Hebrews 7). Thus this oath of an unchangeable priesthood was given prophetically in
the Old Testament and is fulfilled in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is this eternal priesthood of Christ that
fulfills and abolishes the Aaronic priesthood of the Mosaic Covenant and makes the New Covenant irrevocable.
Romans 13:8-10). While salvation is by grace through faith, the New Covenant believer who loves
Jesus will keep His commandments.
simplification it may be set out in the following manner:
II. The BLOOD of the Covenant
sacrifice, but it is also the only sacrifice that can thoroughly cleanse man from sin. All others merely
pointed to and were anticipatory of this once-for-all sacrifice for sin (Hebrews 9,10).
came to the details concerning the body and blood of the victims.
* The body of the burnt Offering had to be wholly burnt on the altar; the blood had to be sprinkled
according to God's command (Leviticus 1).
* Also the body and blood of the Sin and Trespass Offerings were dealt with in the God-ordained way
(Leviticus 4,5). The same was true concerning the sacrifices on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16); the
sacrifice of the red heifer (Numbers 19), and the festival sacrifices (Exodus 12: Numbers 28,29; Leviticus
All of this pointed to and finds its fulfillment in that which pertained to the body and blood of the New
Covenant sacrifice of Jesus. The Old Testament covenantal sacrifices typified the perfect, once-for-all
sacrifice of Jesus. All the sacrificial bodies and blood of previous covenants prophesied of Christ who is
the New Covenant personified.
The writer to the Hebrews devotes two chapters to the body and blood of Jesus in heaven for us. Hebrews
9 deals with the blood, while Hebrews 10 deals with the body; both chapters showing their supremacy over
animal bodies and animal blood. Untold thousands of animal sacrifices were offered in Old Testament
times under covenant, but Jesus offered one perfect, sinless, human sacrifice, once-for-all (Hebrews 10:11-
14). The evidence of this sacrifice is in heaven. The body and blood of Jesus are incorruptible and
therefore eternal. These will be the eternal evidences of our salvation, both having been supernaturally
taken to heaven. Jesus, of the New Covenant, would not have entered heaven without blood, even as
Aaron of the Old Covenant dare not enter the earthly sanctuary without blood (Hebrews 9:7). It is the
blood which makes the atonement for the soul (Leviticus 17:11-14). It is when God sees the blood of
atonement that He accepts the believer (Exodus 12:12,13).
The body and blood of Jesus did not perish at Jerusalem, nor did they see corruption. They are in heaven
for us now and have been accepted of the Father as the basis of Christ's mediatorial and intercessory
ministry. Following are some of the most outstanding truths concerning the New Covenant sacrifice, the
holy body and holy blood of Jesus.
prepared of the Holy Spirit in the virgin Mary on earth (Hebrews 10:5-8; Luke 1:30-33;
resurrected, glorified, and no longer subject to weariness, pain or death (John 19:34,35).
wounds, though glorified, in His hands, feet, and side (John 20:24-29).
glorified. His body is the sample, the firstfruits of the harvest of the resurrected and
immortalized redeemed (I Corinthians 15:51-57; Philippians 3:21; I Thessalonians 4:15-18).
moving in higher and spiritual laws.
abolishes all previous covenant sacrifices. His sacrifice, as the Lamb of God, will be eternally
fresh before the throne of God. The cross was "the altar" upon which Jesus was sacrificed
(Revelation 5:6; John 1:29,26; I Peter 1:19,20; Daniel 9:24-27; Hebrews 10:1-3; Hebrews 13:
universe (I Peter 1:18-20). It is the blood of God (Acts 20:28). It is far more valuable than animal
blood, sinful human blood, for it is the Divine life, the blood of God. It speaks to God on our behalf
(Hebrews 12:22-24). All true believers have faith in the blood of Jesus that was shed on earth at
Calvary 2000 years ago but is now in heaven for us.
being in heaven are noted here.
(4) Reconciliation through the blood (Colossians 1:20; Romans 3:25).
(5) Peace with God through the blood (Colossians 1:20).
(6) Access to God by the blood (Ephesians 2:13).
(7) Conscience purged through the blood (Hebrews 9:13).
(8) Sanctification by the blood (Hebrews 13:12).
(9) Communion through the blood (I Corinthians 10:16).
(10) Covenantal relationship through the blood (Hebrews 13:20).
(11) Kings and Priests unto God through the blood (Revelation 1:5; 5:9,10).
(12) Overcome Satan by the blood (Revelation 12:11).
(13) Eternal life through the blood (John 6:53-63).
(14) Perfection by the power of the blood (Hebrews 6:1-2; 7:11-19).
blood of Jesus which is in heaven before the Father's throne.
(b) A Propitiation (Romans 3:25; I John 2:2; 4:10).
(c) A Substitution (I Peter 3:18; Romans 5:8).
(d) A Redemption (Colossians 1:14).
(e) A Ransom (Mark 10:45; I Timothy 2:5,6).
(f) A Reconciliation (II Corinthians 5:18-21; Hebrews 2:17).
atonement the sinless Christ took our sins and iniquities and suffered the wrath of a righteous and
holy God, receiving in Himself the penalty of sin which was death. His death was not an accident but
an accomplishment. In contrast to all previous covenantal sacrifices, which were unwilling animals,
Christ's New Covenant offering was of His own voluntary will (Psalms 40:6-8; Hebrews 10:1-10; John
Church could remember Him and partake of the power and presence of His sacrifice. This ordinance is the
Lord's Table, or the Communion (Matthew 26:26-28; Luke 22:19,20).
The bread broken symbolized His broken body. The outpoured wine symbolized His outpoured blood.
Thus the bread and the wine became symbolic of the New Covenant sacrifice of Jesus. The table of the
Lord is a covenant table. Paul received special insight into the New Covenant table and wrote to the
believers at Corinth concerning the necessity of eating and drinking worthily of the body of Christ, the
covenantal sacrificial symbols (I Corinthians 11:23-34). Every time believers gather together at the table of
the Lord, they are confessing their unity and covenant relationship with the Lord and with each other.
Failure to properly discern the body of Christ is to betray each other. It causes division and violates the
covenant. Instead of bringing blessing it brings covenantal judgment.
The body and blood of Jesus in heaven makes real and meaningful, by the power and presence of the
Holy Spirit in earth, the bread and the wine to the Church as each ones partakes in faith (John 6:53-63;
Hebrews 9:17-23). The New Covenant table becomes our "altar" unto God for priestly communion, even
as was the table of shewbread in the Old Covenant sanctuary (Hebrews 13:10-13; Exodus 25:23-30).
exemplify the spirit of the atonement (I Peter 2:5-9; Psalms 50:5). The Church which Christ died for is to
live out the implication of His death. Some of these spiritual sacrifices are:
b. Sacrifice of joy (Psalms 27:6).
c. Sacrifice of a broken and contrite spirit (Psalms 51:17).
d. Sacrifice of thanksgiving (Psalms 107:22; 116:17).
e. Sacrifice of our bodies as a living sacrifice (Romans 12:1, 2).
f. Sacrifice of praise (Hebrews 13:15).
g. Sacrifice of good deeds (Hebrews 13:16).
h. Sacrifice of fellowship (Hebrews 13:16).
Covenant. Patriarchal, Aaronic, Levitical, and Kingly-Priests all pointed to that which would be
fulfilled in Christ and the Church. That which was temporal in these priesthoods was abolished at
the cross while that which is eternal passed through the cross and finds fulfillment in the New
Covenant order of Melchisedek.
Covenant Mediators. Christ is the mediator of a better covenant, which is the New Covenant
(Hebrews 8:6; 9:15; I Timothy 2:5,6; Hebrews 12:24).
The Epistle to the Hebrews especially sets forth the glories of Christ's priesthood in contrast to the
mediatorial work and priesthood of Moses, Aaron and the Levites (Hebrews 5,6,7).
Following are the major reasons why Christ's New Covenant priesthood supercedes all previous
redemption. He was a sinless High Priest and therefore far superior to any Old Covenant
mediator. The New Testament writers jealously guarded the fact of Christ's sinlessness (II
was Christ a sinless mediator. He was also a perfect mediator, as a Divine-human person. A
mediator in the truest sense must be able to understand perfectly the parties which need
reconciliation. He must be able to fully identify with both to effectively mediate between them.
In other words, if Jesus Christ is to be a perfect mediator between a holy God and sinful man.
He must have the nature of God and the nature of man (sin excepted) to fully understand both
and to effect reconciliation between them. Moses and Aaron or any other covenant priests
could never do this fully because they had only one nature, sinful human nature. No priest of
the Old Testament could ever be a perfect mediator.
God in His absolute holiness. He also became Man, taking sinless humanity upon Himself and
thus identifying with man. It is this union of the Divine and Human natures in the one person
of Christ which qualifies Him to be a perfect mediator between God and man. He is the
answer to the cry of Job for a Daysman "to lay His hand upon us both" (Job 9:32,33; 16:21; 19:
of the union of the Divine and Human natures in Him, He is able to be both offerer and
offering, sacrifice and sacrificer, priest and gift, heavenly and earthly, spiritual and natural. In
His deity, He is the offerer, the sacrificer, the priest. In His humanity, He is offering, sacrifice,
and gift (Ephesians 5:2,25; Hebrews 8:3; 10:1-14; Galatians 2:20; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 2:17).
presenting sinless humanity to God as a perfect sacrifice for sin. It was God atoning to God.
It was a sinless Man atoning for sinful man. Only the miracle of the incarnation and the union
of the two natures in the one person could make his possible. Therefore, Jesus is both the
New Covenant sacrifice (His human nature, His body and blood) and the New Covenant priest
(His Divine nature).
covenants generally had priests, but only a few persons touched in measure that which
belongs to the Order of Melchisedek. Through Israel's history under the Mosaic Covenant,
the Kingship was given to the tribe of Judah and the Priesthood was given to the tribe of Levi.
Jesus Christ combines in Himself both offices of King and Priest. It is this that constitutes the
New Covenant priesthood, as is noted in the following outline.
(c) As Priest He was appointed and anointed by God (Hebrews 5:4,10).
(d) As Priest He made the sacrifice for sin (Hebrews 5:1-5; 7:8-18; 8:1-5; Romans 3:25,26).
(e) As Priest He makes intercession (Hebrews 4:15; 7:25; 9:11-28; 10:19-22).
(f) As Priest He can be faithful to God, yet merciful to His people (Hebrews 5:1-6; 2:17,18).
(g) As Priest He can be the mediator between God and man (I Timothy 2:5,6; Zechariah 6:
12,13; I John 2:1,9).
(h) As our Great High Priest He can direct the Church, as His priestly body in earth is the
ministry of reconciliation (II Corinthians 5:19-21).
(i) As Priest He can direct and lead the worship of the believing covenant community to the
Father (John 4:20-24; Revelation 5:1-10; Hebrews 2:12).
(b) As King He exercises authority over all things in heaven and earth (Matthew 28:18-20).
(c) As King all enemies are to be placed under His feet. He reigns until the last enemy,
death, has been destroyed (I Corinthians 15:24-28).
(d) As King He rules and reigns in righteousness, peace and joy (Romans 14:7; Isaiah 32:1).
(e) As King all the kingdoms of this world are to be subjected to Him (Daniel 7:1-4; Psalms 22:
28; 72:11; Revelation 11:15-19).
(f) As King He rules in the Church, His Body, which is also after the Order of Melchisedek, or
order of kings and priests unto God (I Peter 2:5-9; Revelation 1:5,6; 5:9,10; 20:6; Ephesians 1:
Thus, the Church's ministry is an extension of His ministry. The Church is identified with Christ in His
Melchisedek priesthood as kings and priests unto God (I Peter 2:5-9; Revelation 1:5,6; 5:9,10; 20:6). It is
the Church, as a kingdom of priests, that fulfills the ministry offered to Israel at Mt. Sinai but was rejected
by them (Exodus 19:3-6). This ministry involves:
(2) Kingly Conquest (Romans 16:20).
(3) Kingly Administration (Revelation 20:6).
(4) Kingly Benevolence (Matthew 5:43-48).
after the heavenly sanctuary and pointed to the fullest expression of God's sanctuary in the earth.
Just as Christ is the fulfillment of all Old Testament sacrifices and priesthoods, so He is the fulfillment
of all Old Testament sanctuaries. By His incarnation He became the dwelling place of God (John 1:
14; 2:18-21; II Corinthians 5:21; I Timothy 3:16; Colossians 1:19; 2:9). Since the cross and the
abolition of material temples "made with hands", the Church, both individually and corporately, has
become God's New Covenant temple (Acts 7:47:50; I Corinthians 3:16,17; 6:16; Ephesians 2:19-22;
I Peter 2:5-9).
2. The Heavenly Sanctuary
Scripture clearly teaches the existence of a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 11:15-19; 15:1-5). It
was here that sin began when Satan and his angels rebelled (Isaiah 14:12-14; Ezekiel 28:11-19;
John 8:44), making the heavens unclean in God's sight (Job 15:15). Christ left the heavenly
sanctuary and by the incarnation took upon Himself body and blood. He made the supreme sacrifice
for sin, whereby both the heavens and the earth would be cleansed from the power and presence of
sin. The writer to the Hebrews declares that after His completed sacrifice on earth, Christ ascended
back to the heavenly sanctuary from which He exercises His King-Priestly ministry (Hebrews 8,9).
3. The Lord Jesus Christ
Coming from the heavenly eternal sanctuary Christ fulfilled the earthly temporal sanctuaries in His
own being. As the Word made flesh He became God's perfect tabernacle. The fullness of the
Godhead dwelt in Him bodily (John 1:14; Colossians 1:19; 2:9). In Him God's name and Shekinah
Glory were revealed (Acts 2:34-36; John 1:14-18; Matthew 17:1-5). He was God's earthly temple as
well as God's eternal temple (John 2:18-21; Revelation 21:22).
4. The Church
Christ not only ministers in the heavenly sanctuary but also ministers in the Church, His earthly
sanctuary (Revelation 1; 2; 3;). Even under Old Testament times there was both the earthly and
heavenly sanctuaries (I Kings 7,8). Since the ascension of Christ the Church has been God's earthly
dwelling place replacing all previous earthly dwelling places and sanctuaries (Acts 7:46-50). God's
name and glory are now revealed in the Church which is Christ's Body (Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 2:34-
36; Ephesians 3:21; 1:19-23). It is the coming together of the members of the Body of Christ that
constitutes the place of the New Covenant priesthood, sacrifice and sanctuary in the earth (Matthew
18:20; Ephesians 2:19,20; Hebrews 10:25; I Peter 2:5-9; I Timothy 3:15,16).
As the seals of previous covenants were given to be ongoing reminders of the authenticity and validity of the covenant,
so God attached a seal to the New Covenant to do the same thing. In this respect, each covenant had its own sign or
seal and God never took the seal of one covenant and attached it to another. However, the seals of all previous
covenants are fulfilled in the seal of the New Covenant. In the scope of the New Covenant, the temporal and earthly
elements are swallowed up in its spiritual reality.
In the Gospels, we find that Jesus Christ Himself, the New Covenant sacrifice and priest, spoke many covenant words
concerning the coming of the Holy Spirit, for the Holy Spirit Himself is the seal of the New Covenant (John 14,15,16).
The Holy Spirit is the New Covenant seal personified, as Jesus is the New Covenant words, sacrifice, priest and
The Holy Spirit is spoken of as:
* The Seal of the Covenant (Ephesians 1:13,14; 4:20; II Corinthians 1:22).
* He gives the Sign of the Covenant which was evidenced in the speaking with other tongues on the Day of Pentecost
(Mark 16:15-20; Acts 2:1-4).
* He is also the Executor of the covenant to see that the last will and testament of Jesus is carried out in the believer's
life (John 14:26; 15:26).
It is His indwelling in the believer that makes possible the blessings of the covenant, that validates his faith in the
covenant that enables obedience to the covenant and makes him God's covenant sanctuary.
Though Old Testament saints were temporarily anointed and energized by the Spirit, it is only the New Covenant saints
that experience His indwelling and abiding presence (Judges 6:34; 14:6; John 14:16,17; Romans 8:9; I Corinthians 3:
16; I John 2:20,27).
In that Jesus is the mediator and personification of the New Covenant, He has received the Spirit without measure. He
also has the prerogative to administer the Holy Spirit as the seal of the New Covenant (John 1:32,33; 3:33,34; Matthew
3:11; Acts 1:5; Luke 24:49; John 15:26). The New Covenant believer is to experience the fullness of the Holy Spirit's
Because the Holy Spirit Himself is the seal of the New Covenant and is the fulfillment of all previous signs and seals, we
note in outline form His major operations in the New Covenant believer.
B. The Holy Spirit indwells the believer's spirit (Romans 8:9; John 14:16,17; I Corinthians 3:16; 6:17; I John 2:27).
C. The Holy Spirit is the anointing who abides within and teaches the New Covenant believer (I John 2:20,27;
D. The Holy Spirit gives assurance of salvation (Romans 8:16).
E. The Holy Spirit fills the believer with Himself (Acts 2:4; Ephesians 5:18).
F. The Holy Spirit by the baptism in the Spirit enables the New Covenant believer to speak in unknown
languages and edify himself (Acts 2:4; 10:44-46; Mark 16:17; I Corinthians 14:2,4,18).
G. The Holy Spirit enables the believer to pray (Jude 20; Romans 8:26-28).
H. The Holy Spirit enables the New Covenant believer to worship in spirit and in truth (John 4:23,24; Philippians 3:
3; I Corinthians 14:15).
I. The Holy Spirit leads and guides the believer into all truth (John 16:13; Romans 8:14).
J. The Holy Spirit enables the believer to put to death the deeds of the flesh (Romans 8:13).
K. The Holy Spirit produces the Christ-like nature and character in the life of the believer (Galatians 5:22,23; II
L. The Holy Spirit empowers the New Covenant believer to be a witness for Christ (Acts 1:8; Isaiah 61:1; Luke 24:
M. The Holy Spirit gives spiritual gifts to those whom He fills (I Corinthians 12:7-13).
N. The Holy Spirit will bring about the resurrection and immortality of the believer's body in the last day. Such will
consummate the Spirit's work as the seal of God (Romans 8:11; I Corinthians 15:47-51; I Thessalonians 4:15-18).
the New Covenant believer to receive the Holy Spirit Himself, as the New Covenant seal. The seal of the New Covenant
is a person, the blessed Spirit Himself.
The operations of the Spirit are spoken of as:
* The Seal (Ephesians 1:13; 14; 4:30);
* The Earnest (II Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Ephesians 1:13,14);
* The Firstfruits (Romans 8:23).
These operations point to the fact that the fullness and consummation of such operations, made possible by the New
Covenant, will bring us into that which was planned by God in the Everlasting Covenant (Hebrews 13:20).
In contrast to previous covenants with their animal sacrifices and impersonal seals, the New Covenant distinctly involves
each of the persons in the Godhead.
* The Father - The Words of the Covenant spoken by Jesus were the Father's words (John 12:44-50; 8:38).
* The Son - The Body and Blood of Jesus were the Sacrifice of the Covenant, and He is also the Priest (Hebrews 10:5-
10-,29; 12:24; 13:20).
* The Holy Spirit - The Seal of the New Covenant is the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 1:13, 14; 4:20; II Corinthians 1:22).
The Covenants, by Kevin J. Conner and Ken Malmin, Copyright 1983, Bible Temple Publishing.
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