John A. MacMillan

B. Childress
Jan 29 2012

There are few subjects relating to the Christian life concerning which there is so little exact knowledge as that of the
authority of the believer.  This is not because such authority is the property of only a few elect souls.  On the contrary, it
is the possession of every true child of God.  It is one of the "all things" received in Christ.  Its reception dates from the
soul's contact with Calvary.

Probably because of the extreme importance of a correct understanding of its privileges and responsibilities, and
because of the power which they confer on a militant believer, the enemy has specially sought to hold back this
knowledge from God's people.  He has been successful through the employment of the "blinding" tactics which he has
found effective in the case of the "lost" and of those who "believe not" (II Corinthians 4:3-4).  For it is strangely true that,
although its principles are set forth in a definite way in the epistle to the Ephesians, there is very little grasp of them by
the majority of even spiritual believers.

That there is such authority is recognized, but it is confounded with other aspects of the life of faith, and thereby loses
its distinctive value and power.  Every doctrine of Scripture, while correlated closely with others of the same class, has
features peculiar to itself.  Only as these are clearly understood, and held in their right relationship, can there be the
fullest benefit from their reception.  The constitution and laws of the spiritual world are perfectly orderly and logical, and
must be adhered to and carefully obeyed if the desired and promised result is to be gained.

In making thus statement it is not intended to suggest that a logical and intelligent mind can of itself grasp spiritual
values, or gain possession of spiritual blessings.  Were that possible, the deepest phases of the Christian life would be
the possession of the most intellectual.  Whereas, it is very definitely asserted by the Spirit of God that, in the
apprehension of divine truth, "The wisdom of the wise" is destroyed, and "the understanding of the prudent" brought to
naught.  Thank God, there is an inner spiritual understanding, conferred through the enlightenment of that same Spirit,
which enables "the foolish things of the world to confound the wise" (I Corinthians 1:27) - this principle being established
by God "that no flesh should glory in his presence" (I Corinthians 1:29).

Wrong Conceptions

The authority of the believer is by some confounded with the fullness of the Spirit.  It is taught that the coming of the
gracious Spirit of God into the soul in His divine fullness gives authority.  But the believer's authority exists before he
seeks or realizes in any special way the Spirit's presence.  It is certainly true that the fullness of the Spirit empowers and
enlightens the believer.  By this alone he is enabled to exercise authority.  But the fullness is not the source of the
authority, but something apart from it.

Nor can authority be regarded as some special gift conferred, whereby the recipient is endued with power, by virtue of
which he performs mighty acts, such as the casting out of evil spirits.  Discernment of spirits and miraculous powers are
mentioned among the
charismata of the Holy Spirit, but they differ from authority.

By others, the authority of the believer is looked upon as nothing more than prevailing prayer.  We have heard men on
their knees, when under a special urge, giving thanks to God for the gift of prayer conferred at the time.  But later there
has been no result seen from the agony or enthusiasm of intercession through which they have passed.  Personal
blessing has resulted from the intense seeking of God's face, but a specific answer to their supplications has not been

What Authority Is

Let us, first of all, define the difference between "authority" and "power."  In the New Testament the translators have not
been uniform in the rendering of many words, and these two words have suffered among others.  One notable instance
is in Luke 10:19 where "power" (KJV) is twice used, although there is a different Greek word in each instance.  To have
translated the first of these by the English word "authority" would have given a clearer idea of the meaning of the
passage.  Perhaps our good old English tongue is at times to blame in not providing sufficient synonyms to meet the
demands of the original.  But a little more uniformity in rendering the same word from the original by the same English
equivalent (a thing usually, though not always, possible) would have given greater clearness of understanding, although
in places it might not have been so euphonious.

One stands at the crossing of two great thoroughfares.  Crowds of people are surging by; multitudes of high-powered
vehicles rush along.  Suddenly a man in uniform raises a hand.  Instantly the tide of traffic ceases.  He beckons to the
waiting hosts on the cross street, and they flow across in an irresistible wave.  What is the explanation?  The traffic
officer has very little "power."  His most strenuous efforts could not avail to hold back one of those swiftly passing cars.  
But he has something far better.  He is invested with the "authority" of the corporation whose servant he is.  The moving
crowds recognize this authority and obey it.

Authority, then, is delegated power.  Its value depends upon the force behind the user.  There is a story told of the
Right Honorable W.E. Gladstone when he served as Prime Minister of Great Britain.  On one occasion he brought in to
Queen Victoria an important measure for her signature, in order that it might become law.  The queen objected to it,
and after some discussion, refused to sign.  The Minister of the Crown was unusually urgent: "Your Majesty," he said,
respectfully but firmly, "you must sign this bill."  She turned on him haughtily: "Sir, I am the Queen of England."  
Unmoved, the statesman answered quietly, "Your Majesty, I am the people of England."  After a little thought, she
accepted the situation and affixed her signature to the document.

This story may be apocryphal, but it illustrates the question of authority when two opposing powers are in conflict.  The
believer, who is fully conscious of divine Power behind him, and of his own authority thereby, can face the enemy
without fear or hesitation.  Those who confront him bear the specific names of power and authority: "We wrestle not
against flesh and blood, but against principalities (
archas, the first or preeminent ones), against powers (exousias, the
authorities)" (Ephesians 6:12).  But, behind the "authority" possessed by the believer, there is a "Power" infinitely
greater than that which backs his enemies, and which they are compelled to recognize.

The Source of Authority

In the beginning of this article, we made the statement that the soul's authority dates from  its contact with Calvary.  Let
us now point out the meaning and the depth of this truth.  When the Lord Jesus, the Captain (
Prince-Leader) of our salvation, was raised from the dead, the act of resurrection was accomplished through "the
exceeding greatness of his [God's] power [
dunameos], to usward who believe, according to the working [energeian] of
the strength [
kratous] of His might [ischuos]."  In this working there was such a putting forth of the divine omnipotence
that the Holy Spirit, through the apostle, requires four words of special significance to bring out the thought.  We shall
not enter into the expressive meaning and grouping of these words further than to say that their combination signifies
that behind the fact of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus there lay the mightiest working recorded in the Word of God.

Having been thus raised from among the dead, Christ Jesus was exalted by God to His own right hand in the
heavenlies.  Then was seen the reason of such mighty working.  The resurrection had been opposed by the
tremendous "
powers of the air": - "all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named,
not only in this world [
aion, age] but also in that which is to come" (Ephesians 1:21).  The evil forces of the "age to
come" had been arrayed against the purpose of God.  They had, however, been baffled and overthrown, and the risen
Lord had been enthroned "far above" them, ruling with the authority of the Most High.

The Conferring of Authority

In calling attention to the "exceeding greatness of his [God's] power," we passed over without comment four words.  
These are "to
usward who believe."  All the demonstration of the glory of God, shown in the manifestation of His
omnipotence, pointed manward.  The cross of Christ, with what it revealed of obedience to God, of atonement for sin, of
crushing defeat of the foes of divine authority, shows us a representative Man overcoming for mankind and preparing,
through His own incumbency, a throne and a heavenly ministry for those who should overcome through Him.

Observe in this connection the identification of Christ's people with Himself, in this crisis of the resurrection.  In the first
verse of chapter 2, the words read literally, "And you,
being dead in trespasses and sins."  It will be noticed that we have
left out the verb "hath he quickened" which appears in our Bibles.  This verb is not in the original; the sentence is
incomplete, "being left unfinished," says one expositor, "in the rapidity of dictation."  We do not accept this as the
explanation of the omission, for we believe that the Holy Spirit so arranged the structure of the whole passage that the
fact might be emphasized that Christ and His people were raised together.

Where, then, do we find the verb that controls this passage?  It will be seen in verses 19 and 20 of chapter 1:
"According to that working of the strength of His might
when He raised HIM from the dead..."[then, parentheses should
be place around the words in chapter 1]...
and YOU when ye were dead."  The same verb which expresses the reviving
of Christ expresses also the reviving of His people.  That is to say the very act of God which raised the Lord from among
the dead, raised also His body.  Head and body are naturally raised together: Christ, the Head; His body, the Church
ho ekklesia, the assembly of believers in Him].  This is a most important statement, and one of which the definite
significance cannot be overestimated.

The same thought, in another form is developed by the apostle in Romans 6, where the death and resurrection of the
Lord Jesus are shown to also include His people.  The passage in Romans sets forth (1) the death to sin of the believer
with the crucified Christ and (2) the consequent annulling of the power of sin over him through the impartation of the life
of the resurrected Christ.  The believer is thus made a full partaker of Christ's righteousness.  But Ephesians lifts (3) the
believer with the ascended Christ to the heavenlies where he is made a partaker of Christ's throne.  In this
enthronement, there is an anticipation of that future union in the government of the nations which he shall share with his
Lord, ruling them with a rod of iron and breaking them in pieces like a potter's vessel (Revelation 2:26-27).

The Location of Authority

That there may be no misunderstanding of the Holy Spirit's meaning in this presentation of the truth of the elevation of
the Lord's people with their Head, He gives it a second time in Ephesians 2:4-6.  They are made to sit with Christ "in the
heavenlies."  Christ's seat is at the right hand of God.  His people, therefore, occupy "with him" the same august
position.  This honor is not to a chosen few, but is the portion of all those who share the resurrection of the Son of God.  
It is the birthright of every true believer, of every born-again child of God.

When the Master foregathered with eleven on the Galilean mountain, at some time during the forty days of His
manifestation after His passion, He said to them, "All authority is given unto me in heaven and in earth" (Matthew
28:18).  His formal assumption of that authority took place when He sat down "on the right hand of the throne of the
Majesty in the heavens" (Hebrews  8:1).  The right hand of the throne of God is the center of power of the whole
universe, and the exercising of the power of the throne was committed unto the ascended Lord.  He is still there in full
possession of His rights, awaiting  the Father's time when His enemies shall be made the footstool of His feet.

The elevation of His people with Him to the heavenlies has no other meaning than that they are made sharers,
potentially for the present, of the authority which is His.  They are made to sit with Him; that is, they share His throne.  
To share a throne means without question to partake of the authority which it represents.  Indeed, they have been thus
elevated in the plan of God, for this very purpose, that they may even now exercise, to the extent of their spiritual
apprehension, authority over the powers of the air and over the conditions which those powers have brought about on
the earth and are still creating through their ceaseless manipulations of the minds and circumstances of mankind.

The Rebel Holders of This Authority

It is necessary to state here what is commonly understood by those who carefully study the Word, that the kingdoms of
this world are under the control and leadership of satanic principalities.  The great head of these is, in the Gospel of
John, three times acknowledged as "prince of this world" by our Lord Himself.  His asserted claim to the suzerainty of the
world kingdoms, made in the presence of the Lord Jesus (Luke 4:6), was not denied by Christ.  Although a rebel against
the Most High and now under judgment of dispossession (John 12:31), he is still at large, and as the masses of mankind
are also rebels, he maintains over them an unquestioned, because unsuspected, rule, their eyes being blinded to his
dominance (II Corinthians 4:4).

The whole rebellious system is divided into heavenly and earthly sections (Isaiah 24:21).  These are "the host of the
high ones that are on high" (the unseen powers of the air) and "the kings of the earth upon the earth" (the rulers of
mankind and their subjects).  Both, the prophets tells us, will be judged in that day when "the LORD cometh out of his
place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity" (Isaiah 26:21), and "with his hard and great and strong
sword will punish Leviathan the swift serpent [the antichrist], and leviathan the crooked serpent [the false prophet]; and
he will slay the monster that is in the sea [the dragon]" (Isaiah 27:1, ASV).  Before these acts of judgment occur, the
Lord's people will be caught up in the rapture.  As Isaiah's eyes were holden to the mystery of the Church, he does not
mention it, but he does speak of the hiding of the Jewish remnant from the wrath of the dragon: "Come, my people,
enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about thee: hide thyself...for a little moment, until the indignation be
overpast" (Isaiah 26:20).

The "host of the high ones on high" is carefully divided in our epistle (Ephesians 6:12).  There are first the "principalities
and powers."  The first-named are mighty princes, whose principalities include large areas of the earth, with authority
over the nations included in them.  The "powers" are difficult to distinguish from them, although attempts have been
made to state the difference; they are inferior in position, probably as ministers associated in government.

Following come "the world rulers of the darkness of this age."  This name would suggest a ministry of deception, the
keeping in darkness of the minds of men and especially of the leaders of thought.

Finally, there are "the hosts of wicked spirits in the heavenlies" - an innumerable body of demons, to whose close
connection with mankind is due the grosser sins and deceptions, the stirring up of the animal passions and the
incitement to all manner of sensual and sensuous desires.  These are the beings that are present in the spiritist
seance, impersonating and deceiving people of strong intelligence, like the well-known leaders connected with the cult

These beings are also at hand in religious gatherings and are a source of peculiar danger, especially when the
emotions are deeply stirred.  Many earnest souls, who have been urged to entire surrender, open their beings with the
utmost abandon to whatever spiritual force approaches them, unaware of the peril of so doing.  Such yielding often
provides an opening for the entrance of demons, who under some pretext gain control of the will.  To dislodge them and
to once more free the victim is usually a very difficult task.

The "kings of the earth upon the earth" comprise human world rulers and their subjects, all unregenerate men.  An
earthly ruler individually may be a Christian, but he is, by virtue of his office, a member of the great world system which
has not yet come under the dominion of the King of kings.  All natural men are members by birth also of this system,
and so must be "delivered out of the power (
exousias, authority) of darkness, and translated into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Colossians 1:13).

The seats of authority of these rebellious spiritual rulers are also in the heavenliest.  From there they have dominated
the human race since its fall.  There they will remain until the divine "purpose of the ages" is complete.


THE AUTHORITY OF THE BELIEVER, by John A. Macmillan, Copyright 2007, WingSpread Publishers.